Table 1

Characteristics of parents and children included in analyses

Extremely preterm
(n=163)
Control
(n=125)
P value*
Parent characteristics
Respondent (n=280)
 Mother144 (91%)109 (90%)0.69
 Father12 (7%)11 (9%)
 Carer/foster parent/grandparent/friend3 (2%)1 (1%)
Median parental age in years (n=278)46 (IQR 42–50)47 (IQR 42–49)0.72
Employment status (n=285)
 Employed/self-employed/full-time student124 (76%)101 (82%)0.52
 Retired/semi-retired/long-term illness4 (3%)2 (2%)
 Homemaker/carer23 (14%)16 (13%)
 Unemployed11 (7%)4 (3%)
Marital status (n=287)
 Married/living with a partner125 (77%)99 (79%)0.14
 Separated/divorced/widowed15 (9%)17 (14%)
 Single22 (14%)9 (7%)
Living with the father or mother of the study child (n=287)116 (72%)95 (76%)0.40
Highest academic qualification (n=265)
 University degree60 (40%)55 (47%)0.51
 Some post-secondary education44 (30%)30 (26%)
 Secondary education or less45 (30%)31 (27%)
Ethnicity (n=288)
 White103 (63%)101 (81%) 0.006
 Mixed/multiple/other ethnic groups12 (7%)4 (3%)
 Asian/Asian British25 (15%)14 (11%)
 Black/African/Caribbean/black British23 (14%)6 (5%)
 Receiving family and/or income support or tax credits (n=288)102 (63%)60 (48%) 0.01
Average IMD at 11 years (n=277)†5.5 (2.8 SD)5.6 (2.9 SD)0.60
Average IMD at delivery (n=158)‡4.7 (2.7 SD)n/a
Child characteristics§
Male sex (n=297)90 (52%)55 (44%)0.16
Average age in years (n=297)12 (0.6 SD)12 (0.6 SD)0.26
Median gestational age in weeks (n=172)26 (range 23–26.9)n/a
Average number of siblings (n=294)1 (0.9 SD)1 (1.0 SD)0.18
School type (n=296)
 Mainstream148 (86%)124 (100%)n/a
 Special educational needs school or unit21 (12%)
 Home educated3 (2%)
 Overall neurodevelopmental disability (n=297)
 None or mild109 (63%)121 (97%)n/a
 Moderate33 (19%)4 (3%)
 Severe30 (18%)0 (0%)
Multiple status at birth (n=172)43 (25%)
  • Note: Missing data accounts for differing totals.

  • Bold p value indicates a priori defined statistical significance (p<0.05).

  • 2 test or Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables and Welch’s t-test for continuous variables were used.

  • †Parents resident in England at the time of the child re-assessment at 11 years. EP n=156 and control n=121, respectively.

  • ‡Biological parents who returned Parent Questionnaires at 11 years (one missing postcode at birth and four non-biological carers at 11 years).

  • §Children who were clinically re-assessed at 11 years and Parent Questionnaires were returned. EP n=172 and control n=125, respectively.

  • EP, extremely preterm; IMD, Index of Multiple Deprivation.