Table 2

Parenting stress and health-related quality of life scores and rates of respondents reporting high levels of stress

Extremely preterm (n=175)*Control (n=125)P value†
Average parenting stress PSI-4-SF score
 Total Stress Score (n=291)74.1 (26.3 SD)59.3 (17.0 SD) <0.001
  Parental distress (n=295)24.2 (9.8 SD)21.0 (6.9 SD) 0.04
  Parent–child dysfunctional interaction (n=294)23.4 (8.6 SD)18.6 (6.3 SD) <0.001
  Difficult child (n=295)26.6 (10.7 SD)19.7 (6.3 SD) <0.001
Parent reporting high parenting stress§
 Total stress (n=291)20 (12%)0 <0.001
  Parental distress (n=295)20 (12%)2 (2%) 0.003
  Parent–child dysfunctional interaction (n=294)23 (14%)3 (2%) 0.003
  Difficult child (n=295)30 (18%)3 (2%) 0.003
 Defensive responding (n=296)52 (30%)47 (38%)0.17
Extremely preterm (n=163)Control (n=125)P value†
Average parental health-related quality of life SF-12v1 score
 Physical health (n=276)50.9 (9.2 SD)52.3 (8.0 SD)0.16
 Mental health (n=276)49.2 (9.5 SD)50.7 (8.1 SD)0.16
  • Note: Missing data accounts for differing totals.

  • Bold p value indicates a priori defined statistical significance (p<0.05).

  • *All returned Parent Questionnaires at 11 years (child re-assessed at 11 years and Parent Questionnaire returned n=172; Parent Questionnaire returned but child not assessed at 11 years n=3).

  • †χ2 test or Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables and Welch’s t-test for continuous variables were used.

  • ‡Bonferroni correction (p values are multiplied by 3).

  • §Raw scores Total Stress Score >109, parental distress >37, parent–child dysfunctional interaction >33, difficult child >37 indicate high stress, Defensive Responding Raw scores ≤10 is suggestive of defensive responding.17

  • IMD, Index of Multiple Deprivation16; PSI-4-SF, Parenting Stress Index-Short Form fourth Edition; SF-12v1, Short Form Health Survey version 1.