Extremely preterm (n=175)* | Control (n=125) | P value† | |
Average parenting stress PSI-4-SF score | |||
Total Stress Score (n=291) | 74.1 (26.3 SD) | 59.3 (17.0 SD) | <0.001 |
Parental distress (n=295) | 24.2 (9.8 SD) | 21.0 (6.9 SD) | 0.04‡ |
Parent–child dysfunctional interaction (n=294) | 23.4 (8.6 SD) | 18.6 (6.3 SD) | <0.001‡ |
Difficult child (n=295) | 26.6 (10.7 SD) | 19.7 (6.3 SD) | <0.001‡ |
Parent reporting high parenting stress§ | |||
Total stress (n=291) | 20 (12%) | 0 | <0.001 |
Parental distress (n=295) | 20 (12%) | 2 (2%) | 0.003‡ |
Parent–child dysfunctional interaction (n=294) | 23 (14%) | 3 (2%) | 0.003‡ |
Difficult child (n=295) | 30 (18%) | 3 (2%) | 0.003‡ |
Defensive responding (n=296) | 52 (30%) | 47 (38%) | 0.17 |
Extremely preterm (n=163) | Control (n=125) | P value† | |
Average parental health-related quality of life SF-12v1 score | |||
Physical health (n=276) | 50.9 (9.2 SD) | 52.3 (8.0 SD) | 0.16 |
Mental health (n=276) | 49.2 (9.5 SD) | 50.7 (8.1 SD) | 0.16 |
Note: Missing data accounts for differing totals.
Bold p value indicates a priori defined statistical significance (p<0.05).
*All returned Parent Questionnaires at 11 years (child re-assessed at 11 years and Parent Questionnaire returned n=172; Parent Questionnaire returned but child not assessed at 11 years n=3).
†χ^{2} test or Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables and Welch’s t-test for continuous variables were used.
‡Bonferroni correction (p values are multiplied by 3).
§Raw scores Total Stress Score >109, parental distress >37, parent–child dysfunctional interaction >33, difficult child >37 indicate high stress, Defensive Responding Raw scores ≤10 is suggestive of defensive responding.^{17}
IMD, Index of Multiple Deprivation16; PSI-4-SF, Parenting Stress Index-Short Form fourth Edition; SF-12v1, Short Form Health Survey version 1.