Table 5

Updated and new recommendations regarding the use of echocardiography in CDH68–77

Updated recommendationsStrength of consensusLevel of evidence
5.1 A minimum of two standardised echocardiograms should be performed, one within 24–48 hours of life (or preoperatively) and another at 2–3 weeks of life, to assess pulmonary hypertension and cardiac function. Additional studies may be conducted as clinically indicated.4B-NR
5.2 While initial echocardiography may be deferred after 24 hours to avoid excessive manipulation during the critical period of pulmonary vascular adaptation, early (<24 hours) echocardiography should be considered in the context of severe cardiorespiratory instability.4B-NR
New recommendationStrength of consensusLevel of evidence
5.3 Repeat echocardiography on days of life 5–7, especially when on ECLS support, may be indicated to assess progression or improvement of pulmonary hypertension.4C-LD
  • CDH, congenital diaphragmatic hernia; LD, limited data; NR, non-randomised.