Table 1

Characteristics of 158 children born with symptomatic or asymptomatic cCMV

CharacteristicsPresentation at birth
Symptomatic
(N=103)
Asymptomatic
(N=55)
P value
Neonatal characteristics
Sex, n (%)0.044
  Male39 (37.9)30 (54.5)
  Female64 (62.1)25 (45.5)
GA, weeks, median (range)38 (28–41)38 (28–41)0.996
Prematurity (≤37 weeks), n (%)25 (24.3)15 (27.3)0.679
Intrauterine growth restriction (weight <−2 SD), n (%)25 (24.3)N/AN/A
Antiviral treatment, n/total (%)*70/96 (72.9)26/52 (50.0)0.005
Outcome data
Moderate or severe disability, n/total (%)†38/83 (45.8)3/45 (6.7)<0.001‡
  Cerebral palsy, n/total (%)†23/83 (27.7)0<0.001‡
  Moderate or severe cognitive deficit§, n/total (%)†17/83 (20.5)1/45 (2.2)0.005
  Behaviour disorder, n/total (%)†6/83 (7.2)¶2/45 (4.4)¶0.712
  Epilepsy requiring antiseizure medication, n/total (%)†14/83 (16.9)0.002‡
  Severe or non-isolated SNHL, n/total (%)†30/83 (36.1)1/45 (2.2)<0.001‡
   Severe SNHL, n/total (%)†23/83 (27.7)1/45 (2.2)<0.001‡
   SNHL in association with other moderate or severe disabilities, n/total (%)†20/83 (24.1)0<0.001‡
  Visual impairment, n/total (%)†6/83 (7.2)00.090
  More than one moderate or severe disability, n/total (%)†25/83 (30.1)1/45 (2.2)<0.001‡
Death, n (%)8 (7.8)00.051
Combined adverse outcome, n/total (%)*46/91 (50.5)3/45 (6.7)<0.001‡
Mild disability, n/total (%)†9/83 (10.8)3/45 (6.7)0.539
  Non-severe SNHL without other moderate or severe disabilities, n/total (%)†9/83 (10.8)1/45 (2.2)0.098
  Mild cognitive deficit**, n/total (%)†1/83 (1.2)2/45 (4.4)0.282
Any disability, n/total (%)†47/83 (56.6)6/45 (13.3)<0.001‡
Lost to follow-up before 12 months (or equivalent CA for prematurity), n/total of surviving patients (%)12/95 (12.6)10/55 (18.2)0.354
  • *N of the total number of patients for whom the variable was available.

  • †N of the total number of surviving patients for whom the variable was available.

  • ‡Statistically significant with the use of Holm-Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons.

  • §GMDS DQ, BSID-II MDI, Bayley-III composite cognitive score or global IQ <−2 SD.

  • ¶Behavioural problems in children born with symptomatic cCMV included attention deficit/hyperactivity (n=3) and pervasive developmental problems (n=1); one child had a combination of oppositional defiant problems, affective problems and anxiety. Behavioural problems seen in children born asymptomatic included pervasive developmental problems (in addition to cognitive impairment) in one case and affective problems in another.

  • **GMDS DQ, BSID-II MDI, Bayley-III composite cognitive score or global IQ between −1 and −2 SD.

  • BSID-II, Bayley Scales of Infant Development II; CA, corrected age; cCMV, congenital cytomegalovirus; DQ, developmental quotient; GA, gestational age; GMDS, Griffiths Mental Development Scales; MDI, Mental Developmental Index; N/A, not applicable; SNHL, sensorineural hearing loss.