Table 1

Summary efficacy outcomes for bacteriology and sepsis including primary outcome

2% CHG-70% IPA (n=79)2% CHG-aqueous (n=27)All (n=106)
Positive exit site skin swab at catheter removal before disinfection, n (%)11 (15.1)4 (16.7)15 (15.5)
 Missing639
Positive exit site skin swab at catheter removal after disinfection, n (%)1 (1.4)1 (4.3)2 (2.1)
 Missing7411
Culture-positive catheter segment at removal†, n (%)3 (4.1)*2 (8.3)5 (5.2)
 Positive tip alone1 (1.3)1 (3.7)2 (1.9)
 Positive proximal segment alone2 (2.5)02 (1.9)
 Both tip and proximal segment positive01 (4.2)1 (1.0)
 Missing639
Definite catheter-related sepsis‡, n (%)1 (1.5)1 (4.5)2 (2.3)
 Missing13518
Catheter-associated sepsis§, n (%)10 (13.7)3 (12.5)13 (13.4)
 Missing639
Total number of PCVC days653223876
Definite catheter-related sepsis, n (rate per 1000 PCVC days)1 (1.5)1 (4.5)2 (2.3)
Catheter-associated sepsis, n (rate per 1000 PCVC days)10 (15.3)3 (13.5)13 (14.8)
  • *Primary outcome: 3/73 (4.1%) with 95% confidence interval of 0.9% to 11.5%.

  • †Catheter colonisation: a catheter that at the time of removal has either one or both segments culture positive.

  • ‡Definite catheter-related sepsis: a peripheral BC plus any catheter segment (i.e. proximal and/or tip) positive with the same organism, based on bacterial culture, antibiotic sensitivity and molecular typing, from a neonate who had an indwelling PCVC and clinical signs of sepsis but no other focus of sepsis.

  • §Catheter-associated sepsis: clinical signs of sepsis and an accompanying positive BC in the period between catheter insertion and 48 hours post removal but with no other focus of sepsis and with both catheter segment cultures negative.

  • BC, blood culture; CHG, chlorhexidine gluconate; PCVC, percutaneous central venous catheter.