Table 2

Infant and maternal baseline characteristics

2% CHG-70% IPA (n=87)2% CHG-aqueous (n=27)
Centre*, n (%)
 Norfolk and Norwich56 (64.4)17 (63.0)
 Medway31 (35.6)10 (37.0)
Male sex, n (%)46 (52.9)13 (48.1)
Infant’s birth weight (g)
 Mean (SD)1089 (340.5)1075 (366.3)
 Range(508–2150)(575–1900)
 <500 g00
 500 to 999 g39 (44.8)15 (55.6)
 1000 to 1499 g37 (42.5)8 (29.6)
 ≥1500 g11 (12.6)4 (14.8)
Gestational age at birth* (completed weeks)
 Median (IQR)28 (26–30)28 (26–30)
 Range(23–32)(23–33)
 <26+0 20 (23.0)5 (18.5)
 26+0 to 27+6 19 (21.8)7 (25.9)
 28+0 to 33+6 48 (55.2)15 (55.6)
One of a multiple pregnancy, n (%)16 (18.4)9 (33.3)
Mode of delivery, n (%)
 Vaginal29 (33.3)7 (25.9)
 Caesarean58 (66.7)20 (74.1)
Membranes ruptured prior to labour, n (%)35 (41.7)9 (36.0)
 >24 hours before delivery20 (57.1)6 (66.7)
 ≤24 hours before delivery15 (42.9)3 (33.3)
 Unknown00
Apgar score at 5 minutes
 Median (IQR)8 (7–9)8 (6–9)
 <42 (2.4)2 (7.7)
First recorded temperature on admission to NICU after birth, mean (SD) °C36.8 (0.7)36.8 (0.9)
Infant ventilated via an endotracheal tube at the time of randomisation, n (%)34 (39.1)13 (50.0)
Infant born in recruiting hospital, n (%)68 (78.2)19 (70.4)
Any surgical procedure prior to randomisation, n (%)6 (6.9)1 (3.7)
Prophylactic antifungal medication at the time of randomisation, n (%)27 (31.0)9 (33.3)
Received antibiotics prior to randomisation†, n (%)78 (98.7)26 (96.3)
Devices in situ at time of PCVC insertion†, n (%)
 Chest drain1 (1.3)0 (0.0)
 Endotracheal tube28 (35.4)12 (44.4)
 Peripheral arterial line2 (2.5)2 (7.4)
 Peripheral venous cannula70 (88.6)18 (66.7)
 Umbilical arterial catheter24 (30.4)11 (40.7)
 Uumbilical venous catheter43 (54.4)14 (51.9)
 Other2 (2.5)0 (0.0)
Mother’s age (years), mean (SD)29.7 (6.0)29.4 (5.7)
Received any antenatal corticosteroids, n (%)80 (92.0)24 (88.9)
Received antibiotics within the week before delivery, n (%)27 (31.0)8 (29.6)
Feverish in labour (temperature>38.0°C)‡, n (%)4 (4.8)0 (0.0)
Chorioamnionitis suspected clinically before delivery, n (%)7 (8.0)1 (3.7)
  • Unless otherwise stated, data are n (%). SD, standard deviation; IQR, interquartile range.

  • *Stratification factors.

  • †Data missing for eight cases in the 2% CHG-70% IPA group.

  • ‡Data missing for three cases in the 2% CHG-70% IPA group.

  • CHG, chlorhexidine gluconate; IPA, isopropyl alcohol; NICU, neonatal intensive care unit; PCVC, percutaneous central venous catheter.