30% Threshold | 40% Threshold | 50% Threshold | 60% Threshold | |||||

Total major morbidities (n) Studies: 12 Participants: 5134 | ||||||||

Prophylaxis: 316 per 1000 (31.6 per 100 participants) | RaR 1.14 (0.94 to 1.40) Network estimate | 45 more per 1000 (20 fewer to 126 more) | RaR 1.18 (0.89 to 1.56) Network estimate | 56 more per 1000 (34 fewer to 176 more) | RaR 1.04 (0.92 to 1.18) Network estimate | 14 more per 1000 (25 fewer to 58 more) | RaR 1.02 (0.81 to 1.28) Network estimate | six more per 1000 (62 fewer to 89 more) |

Quality of evidence ⊕◯◯◯ Very low*†§ | Based on 1783 participants (3 RCTs) | Based on 939 participants (4 RCTs) | Based on 1617 participants (3 RCTs) | Based on 795 participants (2 RCTs) | ||||

Grade 3/4 intraventricular haemorrhage Studies: 12 Participants: 5134 | ||||||||

Prophylaxis 44 per 1000 (4.4%) | OR 2.01 (0.83 to 5.46) Network estimate | 40 more per 1000 (7 fewer to 156 more) | OR 1.69 (0.77 to 4.10) Network estimate | 28 more per 1000 (10 fewer to 114 more) | OR 1.11 (0.44 to 2.47) Network estimate | 5 more per 1000 (24 fewer to 58 more) | OR 0.68 (0.22 to 2.03) Network estimate | 14 fewer per 1000 (34 fewer to 41 more) |

Quality of Evidence ⊕⊕◯◯ Low *† | Based on 1783 participants (3 RCTs) | Based on 939 participants (4 RCTs) | Based on 1617 participants (3 RCTs) | Based on 795 participants (2 RCTs) | ||||

Periventricular leucomalacia Studies: 8 Participants: 3087 | ||||||||

Prophylaxis: 34 per 1000 (3.4%) | OR 0.81 (0.51 to 1.28) Network estimate | 6 fewer per 1000 (16 fewer to nine more) | OR 0.64 (0.07 to 4.25) Network estimate | 12 fewer per 1000 (31 fewer to 96 more) | OR 0.80 (0.21 to 2.81) Network estimate | 7 fewer per 1000 (27 fewer to 56 more) | OR 0.58 (0.19 to 1.50) Network estimate | 14 fewer per 1000 (27 fewer to 16 more) |

Quality of evidence: ⊕◯◯◯ Very low *†§ | Based on 1783 participants (3 RCTs) | Based on 208 participants (1 RCT) | Based on 301 participants (2 RCTs) | Based on 795 participants (2 RCTs) | ||||

Necrotising enterocolitis Studies: 10 Participants: 4690 | ||||||||

Prophylaxis: 75 per 1000 (7.5%) | OR 0.86 (0.55 to 1.35) Network estimate | 10 fewer per 1000 (32 fewer to 24 more) | OR 1.27 (0.81 to 2.01) Network estimate | 18 more per 1000 (13 fewer to 65 more) | OR 1.27 (0.91 to 1.77) Network estimate | 18 more per 1000 (6 fewer to 51 more) | OR 1.15 (0.61 to 2.10) Network estimate | 10 more per 1000 (28 fewer to 70 more) |

Quality of evidence: ⊕⊕◯◯ Low *† | Based on 1504 participants (2 RCTs) | Based on 921 participants (4 RCTs) | Based on 1617 participants (3 RCTs) | Based on 648 participants (1 RCT) | ||||

Retinopathy of prematurity >stage 2 Studies: 6 Participants: 3727 | ||||||||

Prophylaxis 52 per 1000 (5.2%) | OR 1.01 (0.01 to 96.83) Network estimate | 1 more per 1000 (52 fewer to 790 more) | OR 0.87 (0.09 to 7.05) Network estimate | 6 fewer per 1000 (47 fewer to 228 more) | OR 0.99 (0.12 to 6.96) Network estimate | 0 fewer per 1000 (45 fewer to 225 more) | OR 2.36 (0.13 to 40.29) Network estimate | 63 more per 1000 (45 fewer to 638 more) |

Quality of evidence: ⊕◯◯◯ Very low *†§ | Based on 1248 participants (1 RCT) | Based on 367 participants (2 RCTs) | Based on 1464 participants (2 RCTs) | Based on 648 participants (1 RCT) | ||||

BPD Studies: 8 Participants: 3003 | ||||||||

Prophylaxis: 113 per 1000 (11.3%) | OR 1.39 (0.87 to 2.24) Network estimate | 38 more per 1000 (13 fewer to 109 more) | OR 0.77 (0.37 to 1.58) Network estimate | 24 fewer per 1000 (68 fewer to 55 more) | OR 0.93 (0.74 to 1.16) Network estimate | 7 fewer per 1000 (27 fewer to 16 more) | OR 1.02 (0.72 to 1.45) Network estimate | 2 more per 1000 (30 fewer to 43 more) |

Quality of evidence: ⊕◯◯◯ Very low*†‡ | Based on 279 participants (1 RCT) | Based on 460 participants (3 RCT) | Based on 1469 participants (2 RCT) | Based on 795 participants (2 RCT) |

All results are reported as OR with 95% credible intervals.

*The trials were all had some concerns or were at high risk of bias .

†There was significant heterogeneity.

‡This is a surrogate outcome or was an indirect comparison.

§Less than 300 events in combined groups.

¶There is evidence of publication bias.

BPD, bronchopulmonary dysplasia; RaR, rate ratio; RCT, randomised controlled trial.