30% Threshold | 40% Threshold | 50% Threshold | 60% Threshold | |||||

Mortality | ||||||||

Prophylaxis: 103 per 1000 (10.3%) | OR 1.03 (0.45 to 2.35) Network estimate | 2 more per 1000 (54 fewer to 110 more) | OR 1.32 (0.69 to 2.61) Network estimate | 29 more per 1000 (29 fewer to 127 more) | OR 0.81 (0.61 to 1.07) Network estimate | 18 fewer per 1000 (38 fewer to seven more) | OR 0.56 (0.23 to 1.29) Network estimate | 43 fewer per 1000 (78 fewer to 26 more) |

Quality of evidence: ⊕◯◯◯ Very low *†‡§ | Based on 279 participants (1 RCT) | Based on 367 participants (2 RCTs) | Based on 1469 participants (2 RCTs) | Based on 439 participants (1 RCT) | ||||

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia | ||||||||

Prophylaxis: 175 per 1000 (17.5%) | OR 1.40 (0.88 to 2.24) Network estimate | 54 more per 1000 (18 fewer to 148 more) | OR 0.83 (0.39 to 1.70) Network estimate | 26 fewer per 1000 (99 fewer to 91 more) | OR 0.93 (0.74 to 1.16) Network estimate | 11 fewer per 1000 (39 fewer to 22 more) | OR 1.29 (0.84 to 2.02) Network estimate | 41 more per 1000 (25 fewer to 125 more) |

Quality of evidence: ⊕◯◯◯ Very low*†‡ | Based on 279 participants (1 RCT) | Based on 367 participants (2 RCT) | Based on 1469 participants (2 RCT) | Based on 439 participants (1 RCT) | ||||

Pneumothorax | ||||||||

Prophylaxis: 27 per 1000 (2.7%) | OR 4.99 (0.00 to 6953.50) Network estimate | 94 more per 1000 (27 fewer to 968 more) | OR 3.09 (0.02 to 2455.29) Network estimate | 52 more per 1000 (26 fewer to 959 more) | OR 1.52 (0.01 to 324.08) Network estimate | 14 more per 1000 (27 fewer to 873 more) | OR 1.73 (0.00 to 2151.67) Network estimate | 19 more per 1000 (27 fewer to 957 more) |

Quality of evidence: ⊕◯◯◯ Very low*†‡§ | Based on 279 participants (1 RCT) | Based on 367 participants (2 RCTs) | Based on 1469 participants (2 RCTs) | Based on 439 participants (1 RCT) | ||||

Major morbidity | ||||||||

Prophylaxis: 296 per 1000 (29.6 per 100 participants) | RaR 1.20 (0.86 to 1.68) Network estimate | 60 more per 1000 (41 fewer to 202 more) | RaR 1.16 (0.81 to 1.66) Network estimate | 47 more per 1000 (56 fewer to 196 more) | RaR 1.06 (0.93 to 1.21) Network estimate | 19 more per 1000 (20 fewer to 62 more) | RaR 2.05 (1.46 to 2.93) Network estimate | 310 more per 1000 (136 more to 572 more) |

Quality of evidence: ⊕◯◯◯ Very low*†‡§ | Based on 279 participants (1 RCT) | Based on 367 participants (2 RCTs) | Based on 1469 participants (2 RCTs) | Based on 439 participants (1 RCT) | ||||

Grade 3/4 intraventricular haemorrhage | ||||||||

Prophylaxis: 39 per 1000 (3.9%) | OR 1.64 (0.24 to 14.41) Network estimate | 23 more per 1000 (29 fewer to 329 more) | OR 2.16 (0.87 to 5.98) Network estimate | 41 more per 1000 (5 fewer to 156 more) | ||||

Quality of evidence: ⊕◯◯◯ Very low*†‡§ | Based on 279 participants (1 RCT) | Based on 367 participants (2 RCTs) | Based on 1469 participants (2 RCTs) | Based on 439 participants (1 RCT) |

*The trials were all had some concerns or were at high risk of bias.

†There was significant heterogeneity.

‡This is a surrogate outcome or was an indirect comparison.

§Less than 300 events in combined groups.

¶There is evidence of publication bias.

NCPAP, nasal continuous positive airway pressure; RaR, rate ratio; RCT, randomised conrolled trial.