Table 2

Safety outcomes of the RIC manoeuvre

OutcomesStep A (n=5)Step B (n=5)Step C (n=5)
Day 1Day 2
Oxygen saturation (%)*
 Pre-RIC98 (97–99)95 (94–98)95 (92–100)91 (91–93)
 Post-RIC96 (95–99)96 (95–100)100 (93–100)94 (92–100)
 Change (pre-post RIC)†2 (−1 to 4)−2 (−4 to 3)−1 (−5 to 1)−2 (−9 to 0)
Capillary refill time (s)*
 Pre-RIC3 (1–3)3 (2–3)3 (2–4)3 (2–3)
 Post-RIC3 (2–4)3 (2–4)3 (2–4)3 (2–3)
 Change (pre-post RIC)†0 (−2 to 0)0 (0 to 1)0 (0 to 1)0
PIPP score‡
 Pre-RIC3 (2–7)5 (2–9)5 (3–11)4 (4–7)
 Post-RIC5 (4–6)7 (3–10)6 (2–9)7 (3–8)
 Change (pre-post RIC)†−1 (−4 to 2)−1 (−7 to 1)0 (−1 to 2)−1 (−4 to 4)
Urine output (mL/kg/hour)
 24 hours pre-RIC3.5 (0.6–8)4.7 (3.2–6)5.2 (3.4–14.7)4.3 (3.4–5.4)
 24 hours post-RIC4.8 (3.1–6.4)5 (3.7–6.5)4.3 (3.7–5.4)3.5 (2–4.8)
 Change (pre-post RIC)†1.9 (−3.7 to 5.8)0.5 (0.2 to 1.2)−0.1 (−10.4 to 0.2)0.8 (−1 to 3.5)
  • Data are expressed as median (range).

  • *Oxygen saturation (%) and capillary refill time (s) were measured before the first cycle of ischaemia (pre-RIC) and during the 4 min reperfusion time following the last cycle of ischaemia (post-RIC).

  • †Change was calculated as pre-RIC minus post-RIC values.

  • ‡PIPP score determined before RIC and 6 hours after the last cycle.

  • PIPP, Premature Infant Pain Profile; RIC, remote ischaemic conditioning.