Table 1

Demographic variables of study populations

ReferenceNInclusion criteriaSite of recruitmentStudy periodBirth weight (g)
Mean (SD)
Gestational age (weeks) Mean (SD)SDS(Birthweight) (Mean(SD))/ % IUGR*% Antenatal Corticosteroids (any)% Postnatal Corticosteroids% BPD% PDA% any IVHPMA at scan (weeks)
Mean (SD)
MR scannerSegmentation method
Blok et al, PLoS One, 201420 36GA <32 weeksUtrecht (NL)2007–20091027 (47)27.2 (1.7)N/AN/AN/A42%28%°I–IV: 38.9%
(°I: 14%, °II: 5.6%, °III: 11%, °IV: 8.3%)
41.4 (0.8)1.5 T Philips InteraSemiautomatic
Ekblad et al,
J Pediatr, 201030
209bw<1500 g and GA <32 weeksTurku (FI)2001–20061121 (319)†29.0 (2.7)−1.43 (1.61)/38% (SGA)†N/A14%†14%†12.5% (missing information for 4)°I–IV: 23.7%‡,†0.23 T Outlook GP Philips (n=126)/1.5 T Philips Gyroscan Intera (n=106)
(23 scans excluded)
Hansen-Pupp et al, J Clin Endocrin Metab, 201122 51GA <31 weeksLund (SE)2005–2007888 (288)26.4 (1.9)24%N/A26% hydrocortisoneN/AN/A§40.1 (0.6)3 T Siemens Magnetom AllegraManual
Hansen-Pupp et al, Pediatr Res, 201323 49GA <31 weeksLund (SE)2005–2007889 (290)26.0 (1.9)−1.0 (1.2)N/A24% hydrocortisone
31% beta-methasone
N/AN/AN/A40.1 (0.6)3 T Siemens Magnetom AllegraManual
Inder et al, Pediatrics, 20058 119 (of 129)**bw<1500 g and GA ≤32 weeksn=100: Christchurch (NZ), n=29: Melbourne (AU)1998–20001040 (272)27.7 (2.2)22%87%2%21%32%°I–IV: 17%40.2 (0.3)1.5 T General Electric Signa SystemSemiautomatic
Kamino et al, Pediatr Res, 201828 44(of 60)††GA <32 weeksn=33: San Francisco (USA), n=27: Vancouver (CA)2010–2011N/AUCSF: 28.1 (1.8)
UBC: 28.5 (2)
N/AUCSF: 100%
UBC: 63%
°I–°II: UCSF: 12%, UBC: 19%
UCSF: 18%, UBC: 4%
37.7 (3)1.5 T General Electric Signa/Siemens AvantoAutomatic
Moeskops et al, PLoS One, 201521 85GA <28 weeksUtrecht (NL)2008–2013N/A26.6±1.0N/AN/AN/AN/AN/A°I: 11.8%, °II: 15.3%, °III: 5.9%41.1 (0.5)3 T Philips AchievaAutomatic
Parikh et al,
PLoS One, 201329
122bw<1000 gHouston (USA)2005–2007771 (144)26.7 (1.9)25% (SGA)70%18% ‘postnatal steroids for BPD’52%33% with PDA surgery°I–IV: 18%38.5 (2.2)1.5 T Reliant Medical GE-LXSemiautomatic
Steinhorn et al, J Pediatr, 201524 192bw<1250 g and/or GA <30 weeksMelbourne (AU)2001–2003956 (223)27.5 (1.9)9%89%9%N/AN/A°III–IV: 4%‘Between 38 and 42 weeks’1.5 T General Electric Signa SystemManual
Stiver et al,
J Child Neurol, 201526
105GA <32 weeksToronto (CA)2008–2010N/A28.8 (1.8)N/A69%6% ‘postnatal steroid exposure’N/AN/A°I/II: 19%
°III/IV: 21%
41.9 (2.0)1.5 T Signa Twin EXCITE3Semiautomatic
Tam et al,
Sci Transl Med, 201127
68 (of 172)¶GA<33 weeksSan Francisco (USA)2006–2009N/A27.5 (2.1)N/A90%22%51%50%°I–IV: 32,4%39.5 (1.3)1.5 T General Electric Signa/Siemens AvantoSemiautomatic
Thompson et al, Brain, 200725 202bw<1250 g and/or GA<30 weeksMelbourne (AU)2001–2004965 (239)27.6 (2.0)11%87%9%34%36% (Indomethacin administered)°I–IV: 12%40.1 (1.7)1.5 T General Electric Signa SystemManual
Vasu et al, BMJ Open, 201431 19 (of 22)**GA<32 weeksLondon (UK)2007–20081260 (410)28.9 (2.8)−0.13 (0.78)N/AN/A25%20% with pharmacological therapy°III–IV: 5%40.2 (3.1)3 T Philips AchievaAutomatic
  • N/A: Data not available in the published manuscript.

  • Brain volumetry was not available in all infants.

  • *Proportion with SDS for birth weight <-2/if marked as ‘SGA’, then proportion with birth weight <10th percentile.

  • †According to publication: Maunu et al. PIPARI Study Group. Ventricular dilatation in relation to outcome at 2 years of age in very preterm infants: a prospective Finnish cohort study. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2011 Jan;53(1):48–54.

  • ‡According to personal communication with the author: MRI were performed at term (SD 5 days) in 93% of infants. The time between term age and imaging day was at most 29 days (in one infant).

  • §Only the percentage of ‘severe brain damage’; IVH °III and/or parenchymal haemorrhage and/or WMD was reported (12%).

  • ¶From the original data reported by Tam et al, the infants meeting the inclusion criteria of this review were selected and analysed.

  • **Only the percentage of infants with hydrocortisone treatment was reported.26

  • ††Patient characteristics were reported from the original population

  • bw, birth weight; GA, gestational age at birth; IVH, intraventricular haemorrhage; SGA, small for getational age; UBC, University of British Columbia; UCSF, University of California San Francisco; WMD, white matter disease.