Table 1

Characteristics of the included studies

Study ID; country; study design; sample sizeGestation/BW (in weeks and grams)Hyperglycaemia definition: age when hyperglycaemia was detected; incidence
Villamizar 2020; USA; PC; 97GA: mean (±SD) 27.8 (±2.4) and BW: mean (±SD) 1059.0 (±300.4)>8.3 mmol/L; first 7 days; 48.5%
Vannadil 2019; India; PC; 1039 GA: mean (±SD) 30.282 (±2.0188) and BW: mean (±SD) 1251 (±313.1432)NA; first 7 days; NA
Bochkova 2019; Russia; PC; 6839 GA: mean (±SD) 29 (±1.1 weeks) and BW: mean (±SD) 1326 (±119.8)NA; NA; 100%
Jagla 2019; Poland; PC; 748 GA: median (IQR) 28 (26–30) and BW: mean (±SD) 1066 (±267)>8.33 mmol/L; first 6 days of life; 10.35%
Zamir 2019; Sweden; PC; 17167 GA: mean (±SD) 25.4 (±1)>10 mmol/L for 2 or 3 consecutive days; first 28 days; 46.8%
Goldner Perez 2019; USA; RC; 23246 GA: mean (±SD) NG vs HG 29.7±1.7 vs 26.8±2.2, BW: mean (±SD) NG vs HG 1188 (±226) vs 877 (±215) (children who had DA)Mild >8.3 to 10 mmol/L, moderate >10 to 11.6 mmol/L and severe >11.6 mmol/L; first 7 days; 64.7% who had DA
Turai 2019; Hungary;
RC; 18868
GA: mean (±SD) 27.1 (±2.2)
BW: mean (±SD) 814.9 (±151.9)
>8.5 mmol/L; NA; 32.9%
Zamir 2018; Sweden; RC; 5805 GA: mean (±SD) HG vs NG 25.1 (±1.1) vs 25.9 (±0.8), BW: mean (±SD) 725 (±163) vs 852 (±147)>10 mmol/L; first 28 days; 70%
Slidsborg 2018; Denmark; CC; 31061 GA: mean (±SD) ROP vs no ROP 26.57 (±1.8) vs 27.28 (±1.74) and BW: mean (±SD) 848 (±215) vs 998 (±302)>8.5 mmol/L; first 7 days; NA
Naseh 2017; Sweden; CC; 7556 GA mean (±SD): 28.3 (±2.6), BW: mean (±SD) 1178 (±408)>8.3 mmol/L; first 7 days; 41.3%
Tottman 2017; New Zealand; RC; 44363 GA: median NG vs HG 29 vs 26, BW: median 1170 vs 890≥8.6 mmol/L on ≥2 measures or any blood glucose concentration ≥10.1 mmol/L; first 7 days; 16%
Akmal 2017; Egypt; PC; 60
(A: 8.3–15 mmol/L, B: >15 mmol/L)11
GA: mean (±SD) HG 29.8 (±1.8), NG 30.8 (±1.6); BW: mean (±SD) 1258 (±180) vs 1341 (±110)>8.3 mmol/L (mild >8.3 mmol/L, moderate >10 mmol/L and severe >15 mmol/L); first 7 days; 66.7%
Kim 2017; South Korea; CC; 14770 GA: mean (±SD) ROP vs no ROP 27.3 (±1.5) vs 30.5 (±2.7), BW: mean (±SD) 952 (±199) vs 1240 (±219)>6.9 mmol/L; first 3 weeks; NA
Reyes 2017; Oman; CC; 17169 GA: mean (±SD) 30 (±2)
BW: mean (±SD) 1200 (±330)
>8 mmol/L; NA; 24%
Bermick 2016; USA; CC; 216
(A: 8.3–11 mmol/L, B: 11.1–13.8 mmol/L, C: >13.9 mmol/L)15
GA: mean (±SD) IVH: 25.2 (±1.3), no IVH: 25.9 (±1.5); BW: mean (±SD) IVH: 760 (±137), no IVH: 769 (±162)>11.1 mmol/L; first 10 days; 51.8%
Lee 2016; USA; CC; 24 54850 GA: median (IQR) 26 (25–27)
BW: median (IQR) 795 (680–900)
>10 mmol/L; NA; 43% and 26% infants with and without severe ROP, respectively
Manzoni 2016; Italy; RC; 74053 NA>11.1 mmol/L; first 5 days; NA
Scheurer 2016; USA; PC; 53
(A: 1–5 days HG, B: >5 days HG)60
GA: mean (±SD) NG 29.3 (±1.3), HG for 1–5 days: 27.2 (±2.0), for >5 days: 24.0 (±1.0); BW: mean (±SD) NG 1217.3 (±170.2), HG for 1–5 days 929.2 (±278.3) and HG for >5 days 681.2 (±143.7)>8.3 mmol/L; first 14 days; 54.7%
De Carolis 2015; Italy; RC; 16616 GA: mean (±SD) NG: 26.8 (±2.0) HG: 26.1 (±2.1), BW: mean (±SD) NG 808 (±136) vs HG 695 (±146)>13.3 mmol/L any measure or >10 mmol/L in 2 measures; NA; 31.9%
Nicolaeva 2015; Russia; PC; 6457 No ROP, spontaneously regressing ROP, ROP regression after LASER treatment—GA: mean (±SD) 28.6 (±1.4), 26.5 (±1.2), 25.4 (±0.7); BW: mean (±SD) 1162 (±322), 905 (±224), 763 (±138)>8.9 mmol/L; first 3 weeks; NA
Stensvold 2015; Norway; RC; 343
(A: 8.4–10 mmol/L, B: 10.1–12 mmol/L, C: >12 mmol/L)12
Period 1 (10% dextrose at birth) vs period 2 (TPN from birth) and GA: mean (±SD) 26.3 (±1.8) vs 26.4 (±2.2), BW: mean (±SD) 765 (±154) vs 736 (±152)Mild (8.4:10 mmol/L), moderate (10.1:12 mmol/L) or severe (>12 mmol/L); first 7 days; 38% in period 1 vs 71% in period 2
Szymońska 2015; Poland; PC; 63
(A: 8.3–10 mmol/L, B: >10 mmol/L)
GA: mean (±SD) overall population 27.7±2.4, BW: mean (±SD) overall population 1059.4 (±262)Gr A: <5% of reading time >8.33 mmol/L. Gr B: >5% of reading time >8.3 mmol/L. Gr C: >5% of reading time in >10 mmol/L; first 7 days; >8.33 mmol/L in 84.1%, >10 mmol/L in 34.9%, >15 mmol/L in 4.8%
Cardona 2014; USA; RC; 4041 NAMild: 8.3:10 mmol/L, moderate: 10.01:11.6 mmol/L, severe: >11.6 mmol/L; first month; 58%
Ahmadpour Kacho 2014; Iran; CC; 15537 ROP infant vs control infant GA: mean (±SD) 29.91 (±2.46) vs 30.59 (±1.97) and BW: mean (±SD) 1238.57±344.77 vs 1327.53±293.03>8.3 mmol/L; until the time baby is fully fed; 24.5% of patients with ROP and 5.9% patients in the control group
Mohsen 2014; Egypt; PC; 6555 NG vs HG GA: mean (±SD) 31.2 (±1) vs 30.9 (±1.4) and BW: mean (±SD) 1446 (±193) vs 1318 (±242)>8.3 mmol/L; first 7 days; 48%
Sabzehei 2014; Iran; RC; 56459 BW: mean (±SD) 1179.26 (±258.45) and GA: mean (±SD) 29.68±2.577>8.3 mmol/L; NA; 31.7%
Auerbach 2013; Israel; CC; 17814 GA: mean (±SD) IVH 27.6 (±2.4) vs no IVH 28.4 (±2.2), BW: mean (±SD) IVH 1026 (±385) vs no IVH 1126 (±339)>6.9 mmol/L; first 96 hours; 86% had 1 and 29% had >4 hyperglycaemic events
Mohamed 2013; USA; CC; 58254 No ROP vs ROP group: GA: mean (±SD) 28.1 (±1.8) vs 25.8 (±1.9), BW: mean (±SD) 1080 (±272) vs 831 (±266)>8.3 mmol/L; NA; NA
Ramel 2013; USA; RC; 8058 Overall population: mean (±SD) (range) GA: 27.11 (±2.02) (22.57 to 30.71)
BW: 943.62 (±246.16) (510 to 1440)
>8.3 mmol/L; first 14 days; 77%
van der Merwe 2013; South Africa; CC; 35665 Overall population GA: mean (±SD) 28.3 (±1.7) and BW: mean 949.3>8.5 mmol/L; NA; NA
Yoo 2013; Korea; RC; 260
(A: 11.16–16.61 mmol/L, B: >16.66 mmol/L)66
NG GA: mean (±SD) 27.2 (±2.3), BW: mean (±SD) 886 (±87), permissive HG group (P): GA: 26.2 (±2.2), BW: 796 (±124), treated HG group (T): GA: 24.4 (±2), BW: 677 (±142)NG (N): ≤11.11 mmol/L; the permissive HG (without treatment) (P): 11.16–16.61 mmol/L and the treated HG (T): ≥16.66 mmol/L; first 14 days; 15%, 39%, 46% in N, P, T groups, respectively
Bozdag 2012; Turkey; PC; 16740 No ROP vs ROP group: GA: mean (±SD) 29.6 (±1.79) vs 28.48 (±1.94) and BW: mean (±SD) 1269.07 (±206.6) vs 1092 (±212.9)>8.33 mmol/L; NA; 56.28%
Kaempf 2011; USA; CC; 37249 Overall population GA: mean (±SD) 27.6 (±1.4), BW: mean (±SD) 994 (±242)Mild 8.38 to 10 mmol/L; moderate 10.05 to 11.66 mmol/L; severe >11.66 mmol/L; first 29 days Mild ROP: 37%, 20% and 10%; severe ROP: 45%, 25% and 13%
No ROP: 26%, 13% and 6% (order: mild, moderate and severe HG)
Chavez Valdez 2011; USA; RC; 11442 Overall population GA: mean (±SD) 26.6 (±2), BW: mean (±SD) 782 (±136)8.33 mmol/L; first 30 days; 79%
Van der Lugt 2010; Netherlands; RC; 85964 Overall population GA: mean (±SD) 29.4 (±2.0), BW: mean (±SD) 1323 (±410)≥10.0 mmol/L; NA; 8%
Alexandrou 2010; Sweden; PC; 1137 Overall population GA: mean (±SD): 25.5 (±1.0), BW: mean (±SD): 796 (±162)>8.3 mmol/L; first week of life; 81%
Heimann 2007; Germany; RC; 25248 GA: mean 27.4 (24 to 35) and BW: mean 952.2 (480 to 1500)Group I: no glucose levels ≥8.33 mmol/L, group II: 1–3 glucose levels ≥8.33 and group III: 4 or more glucose levels ≥8.3; first week; 49.6% in group II, 17.9% in group III
Blanco 2006; USA; RC; 16938 NG GA: mean (±SD) 26.8 (±1.5) and for HG cohort: 25.8 (±2.2). NG BW: mean (±SD) 843 (±120) and for HG 742 (±134)≥8.3 mmol/L; first 2 weeks; 88%
Ertl 2006; Hungary; CC; 20144 GA: mean (±SD) ROP 27 (±1.9), no ROP 30.1 (±2.2). BW: mean (±SD) ROP 971 (±227), no ROP 1237 (±192)>8.5 mmol/L; NA; 19.4%
Hays 2006; USA; CC; 931 GA: 25.4 (±1.9), BW: mean (±SD) 760 (±158)>8.33 mmol/L; first 7 days; 32% with a threshold of 13.88 mmol/L and 57% with a threshold of 8.33 mmol/L
Kao 2006; USA; RC; 201
A1: 6.66–9.9 mmol/L for 3 days
A2: 6.66–9.9 mmol/L for 7 days
B1: >9.9 mmol/L for 3 days
B2: >9.9 mmol/L for 7 days36
Overall population; GA: mean (±SD) 26.2 (±1.9), BW: mean (±SD) 729 (±127)Mild: moderate HG (6.66 to 9.9 mmol/L) and severe HG (≥10 mmol/L); first 7 days; 38% severe HG
Manzoni 2006; Italy; CC; 38352 Group A: invasive fungal infection: GA (group A): 27.5 (±4), BW: mean (±SD): 985 (±240); group B: LOS (bacterial): GA: 27.7 (±4), BW: 1044 (±235)≥12 mmol/L; first month; group A: 46.6%, group B: 23.9%
Sutija 2004; USA; CC; 20762 ROP vs no ROP; GA: mean 26.1 vs 27, BW: 781.3 vs 944.3>6.66 mmol/L; first 28 days; NA
Garg 2003; USA; CC; 4745 Overall population; GA: mean 25.0 and BW: 717>8.3 mmol/L; first 30 days; NA
Chen 2001; Taiwan; RC; 12743 HG—GA: mean (±SD) 27.9±5.9, BW: 942±258; NG—GA: mean (±SD) 28.8±4.7, BW 1195±229>8.3 mmol/L; NA; 31%
Lilien 1979; USA; PC; 3051 Stressed group (RDS and mechanically ventilated): mean (±SD) 28.6 (±2.19), BW: 1060 (±56). Control (mild RDS without respiratory support): 29.3 (±3.28)
BW: 1120 (±72)
>8 mmol/L plasma glucose and >7 for whole blood glucose; NA; 46.6%
  • BSID, Bayley Scale of Infant Development; BW, birth weight; CA, corrected age; CC, case–control study; CLD, chronic lung disease; CRIB, Clinical Risk Index for Babies; CV, coefficient of variation; DA, developmental assessment; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; ELBW, extremely low birth weight infant; GA, gestational age; HG, hyperglycaemia; IVH, intraventricular haemorrhage; LF, lactoferrin; LOS, late-onset sepsis; MAGE, mean amplitude glucose excursion; NA, not available; NEC, necrotising enterocolitis; NG, normoglycaemia; PC, prospective cohort study; PMA, post-menstrual age; PVL, periventricular leucomalacia; RC, retrospective cohort study; RDS, respiratory distress syndrome; ROP, retinopathy of prematurity; SBP, systolic blood pressure; SGA, small for gestational age; TPN, total parenteral nutrition; VLBW, very low birth weight infant; WM, white matter.