Table 2

Differences between types of malformations in overall neurodevelopmental outcome

Type of malformationNumber of studiesCohen’s d (95% CI, p value) on overall neurodevelopmental outcomeType of malformation versus other types of malformation, Q-values, p values
Abdominal wall defects (ie, gastroschisis, omphalocele)17−0.375 (−0.567 to −0.182, p<0.001)Q=1.14, p=0.286
Colorectal malformations (ie, Hirschsprung’s disease, anorectal malformations)10−0.485 (−0.765 to −0.206, p=0.001)Q=0.024, p=0.877
Oesophageal atresia17−0.521 (−0.713 to −0.328, p<0.001)Q=0.433, p=0.506
Intestinal atresia5−0.251 (−0.585 to −0.082, p=0.140)Q=1.657, p=0.190
Short bowel syndrome6−1.000 (−1.324 to −0.675, p<0.001)Q=11.639, p=0.002