Table 2

Univariable and multivariable analyses of characteristics associated with respiratory support in the delivery room

nCases of respiratory support (n=44), n (%)Crude risk ratio (95% CI)P valueAdjusted risk ratio (95% CI)P value
Antenatal
Any medical complication of pregnancy*8015 (34)1.41 (0.80 to 2.50)0.24
Fetal compromise
 Reduced movements194 (9)1.47 (0.59 to 3.67)0.499†
 Meconium-stained amniotic fluid8514 (32)1.17 (0.65 to 2.09)0.601
 Abnormal CTG15924 (55)1.05 (0.61 to 1.81)0.864
Spontaneous labour onset908 (18)0.51 (0.25 to 1.06)0.06
Antenatal oxytocin16617 (39)0.50 (0.29 to 0.88)0.014
Breech/transverse lie4512 (27)2.11 (1.18 to 3.78)0.015
Labour complications
 Failure to progress446 (14)0.91 (0.41 to 2.03)0.819
 Prolonged second stage673 (7)0.25 (0.08 to 0.79)0.006†
 Difficult extraction7315 (34)1.59 (0.91 to 2.80)0.109
Type of birth
 Unassisted vaginal331 (2)1.00 (ref)N/A1.00 (ref)N/A
 Instrumental1134 (9)1.17 (0.14 to 10.1)0.8871.34 (0.18 to 14.55)0.794
 Planned CS479 (20)6.32 (0.84 to 47.5)0.0324.73 (0.87 to 22.98)0.127
 Unplanned CS in labour5414 (32)8.56 (1.18 to 62.1)0.0068.21 (1.85 to 25.61)0.027
 Unplanned CS not in labour5116 (36)10.4 (1.44 to 74.4)0.0027.96 (1.78 to 25.47)0.03
Postnatal
Gestation at birth0.89 (0.74 to 1.06)0.182
Time to first cry‡1.02 (1.00 to 1.04)0.02
Time to regular cries‡1.02 (1.01 to 1.04)<0.0011.02 (1.01 to 1.04)0.002
Average heart rate 90–120 s after birth‡0.97 (0.96 to 0.98)<0.0010.97 (0.96 to 0.99)<0.001
  • *Includes hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, diabetes mellitus, sepsis, oligohydramnios, antepartum haemorrhage and placenta previa.

  • †Fisher’s exact test.

  • ‡Data were unavailable for 7 infants for ‘time to first cry’, 5 infants for ‘time to regular cries’ and 15 infants for ‘average heart rate 90–120 s after birth’.

  • CS, caesarean section; CTG, cardiotocography; N/A, not applicable; ref, reference.