Table 3

Comparison of antenatal and delivery characteristics between infants ≥36 weeks GA admitted to neonatal units with mild HIE who received, or died without, TH or did not receive TH

VariableInfants ≥36 weeks GA with mild HIE
No TH
(n=2238)*
Received TH
(n=1029)*
Missing
n (%)
OR (95% CI)P value†
Antenatal characteristics
 Diabetes mellitus18 (0.8)7 (0.7)00.88 (0.37 to 2.12)0.78
 Gestational diabetes81 (3.5)26 (2.5)00.72 (0.46 to 1.13)0.15
 Pre-eclampsia96 (4.1)33 (3.2)00.77 (0.52 to 1.16)0.21
 Risk factors of early infection‡441 (18.9)211 (20.5)01.11 (0.92 to 1.33)0.27
Delivery characteristics
 Gender (male)1425 (61.0)590 (57.5)10.86 (0.74 to 1.00)0.05
 GA (weeks)40 (39–41)40 (39–41)00.95 (0.83 to 1.08)0.43
 Birth weight (g)3410 (3026–3800)3360 (2965–3740)00.98 (0.97 to 0.99)0.005
 >98th centile121 (5.2)33 (3.2)00.61 (0.41 to 0.90)0.01
 Intrapartum events§170 (7.3)89 (8.7)01.21 (0.92 to 1.57)0.17
 Apgar 1 min4 (2–6)3 (1–5)152 (4.7)0.47 (0.41 to 0.54)<0.001
 Apgar 5 min7 (5–8)5 (4–7)141 (4.3)0.34 (0.30 to 0.40)<0.001
 Significant resuscitation¶431 (18.4)433 (42.1)03.21 (2.71 to 3.80)<0.001
 Venous cord pH7.16 (7.04–7.27)7.14 (6.99–7.25)892 (27.3)0.97 (0.96 to 0.98)<0.001
  • Data items diabetes mellitus, gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, risk factors for sepsis, intrapartum events and significant resuscitation variables were collected using a tick box so it was not possible to accurately determine missing data from absence of a characteristic.

  • *Data are n (%) or median (IQR).

  • †Categorical data analysed using χ2 test; non-normally distributed continuous data analysed using Mann-Whitney U test.

  • ‡Maternal fever, chorioamnionitis, prolonged rupture of membranes and urinary tract infection.

  • §Cord prolapse, shoulder dystocia, abruption and reduced fetal movements.

  • ¶Chest compression, intubation and drugs.

  • GA, gestational age; HIE, hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy; TH, therapeutic hypothermia.