Table 2

SARS-CoV-2 antibody tests of human milk in included studies

Authorn=XMethod usedSARS-CoV-2 IgG (unspecified)Anti-SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid IgGAnti-SARS-CoV-2 S2 IgGAnti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA (unspecified)Anti-SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid IgASARS-CoV-2 IgM (unspecified)Anti- SARS-CoV-2 spike protein IgMTotal antibody reactivity against the RBD of the SARS-CoV-2 spike proteinSARS-CoV-2 neutralisation abilityInterval between onset of symptoms and presence of antibodyDuration antibody persisted from onset of COVID-19 until end of study
Dong et al 15 1ELISA.
Specificity: S-protein.
YesNANAYesNANANANANA26 days42 days
Yu et al 27 1Not statedYesNANANANAYesNANANA30 days30 days
Luo et al 21 1ELISA.
Specificity: not stated.
NoNANANoNA100%, 4/4 individualsNANANA7 daysNot known
Walczak et al 26 1Microsphere immunoassay.
Specificity: not stated.
YesNANANoNAYesNANANA10 days25 days
Lebrão et al 20 1ELISA
Specificity: Not stated
NoNANAYesYesNANANANA3 days6 days
van Keulen et al 25 29ELISA and bridging ELISA.
Specificity: S-protein, RBD and N protein.
YesYesYes83%; 24 individuals83%; 24 individualsNANA83%; 24 individuals28%; 8 individualsMean 5.9 (SD 2.6) weeksNot known
Gao et al 19 14Chemiluminescence immunoassay.
Specificity: not stated.
YesNANANANA14%, 2 individualsNANANA17–22 days28 days
Preßler et al 24 14Not stated.
Specificity: nucleocapsid.
14%; 2 individualsNANA14%; 2 individualsNANANANANA14 daysNot known
Fenizia et al 17 31Chemiluminescence immunoassay.
Specificity: nucleocapsid and S-protein.
YesNANANANA10%, 1/10 individualsNANANANot knownNot known
Peng et al 23 24ELISA.
Specificity: not stated.
NegativeNANANANA42.1%, 8/19 individualsNANANA3–79 days1–70 days
Favara et al 16 1Not stated.
Specificity: N-antigen, S-antigen and RBD-antigen.
YesYesYesYesYesNANAYesYes28 days195 days
Fox et al 18 15ELISA.
Specificity: trimeric S-protein, RBD of S-protein
NANANAYesNA33.3%, 5 individuals33.3%, 5 individuals80%; 12 individualsNANot knownNot known
Pace et al 22 18ELISA.
Specificity: Spike (S2 and RBD) and nucleocapsid.
YesYesYesYesYesNANAYes62%;11 individuals0–22 days (3 asymptomatic)Not known
Demers-Mathieu et al 28 7ELISA. Specificity: Spike (S1 or S2)100%; 7 individualsNA100%; 7 individuals100%; 7 individualsNA100%; 7 individuals100%; 7 individualsNANAMean 47 (SD 24) daysNot known
Number of individuals who tested positive for antibodies/individuals who were tested for antibodies (%)106/144 (73.6%)48/48 (100%)55/55 (100%)69/86 (80%)44/49 (89.8%)29/71 (40.8%)12/22 (54.5%)55/63 (87.3%)20/48 (41.6%)
  • NA, not tested; RBD, receptor binding domain; S-protein, spike protein.