Table 1

Demographics and clinical manifestations of lactating individuals with COVID-19 infection

AuthorPublication dateCountryn=XStudy typeDiagnosis of COVID-19 in individualTiming of COVID-19 infectionIllness severityInfant’s age at collection of milk sampleFeeding modeInfected infantsTiming of milk collection (active infection/convalescent/unknown)
Dong et al 15 March 2020China1Case reportRT-PCRAntenatalMild<28 days (term baby)Formula fed0Active infection and convalescent
Luo et al 21 June 2020China4Case seriesRT-PCRAntenatal1 asymptomatic; 3 mild<28 days (term baby)Mixed feeding with formula0Unknown
Walczak et al 26 July 2020Australia1Case reportRT-PCRAntenatalMild<28 days (term baby)Breastfed0Unknown
Yu et al 27 August 2020China1Case reportRT-PCRPostnatalMild13 months oldBreastfed1Active infection and convalescent
Lebrão et al 20 August 2020Brazil1Case reportELISAAntenatalSevere<28 days (term baby)Breastfed0Convalescent
van Keulen et al 25 August 2020Netherlands29Case–controlRT-PCRPostnatalMild1.5 months oldNot statedNot statedLikely active infection and convalescent
Gao et al 19 September 2020China14Case Series10 by RT-PCR; 4 by ELISAAntenatalMild<28 days (term baby)Breastfed1Likely active infection
Julia Preßler et al 24 October 2020Germany14Case SeriesRT-PCRAntenatalMild<28 days (Term baby)Breastfed0Unknown
Fenizia et al 17 October 2020Italy31Case-controlRT-PCRAntenatal4 severe; 27 mild<28 days (all term babies except 1 preterm at gestational age of 34+4 weeks)29 breastfed; 2 formula fed2Likely active infection
Peng et al 23 November 2020China24Case SeriesRT-PCRAntenatal15 mild; 9 asymptomatic<28 days (7 preterm; 17 term)14 mixed feeding; 10 formula fed0Active infection and convalescent
Favara et al 16 November 2020UK1Case reportRT-PCRPostnatalMild6 months oldBreastfed0Active infection and convalescent
Fox et al 18 November 2020USA15Case seriesRT-PCR2 antenatal; 13 postnatalNot statedData not collectedNot statedNot statedUnknown
Pace et al 22 February 2021USA18Case seriesRT-PCRPostnatal3 asymptomatic; 15 mildNot stated5 breastfed; 13 mixed feeds0Active infection
Demers-Mathieu et al 28 February 2021USA7Case–controlRT-PCRPostnatal7 mildNot statedNot statedNot statedConvalescent
  • RT-PCR, reverse transcription PCR.