Table 4

Comparison of infants with and without outcomes of death, death/major neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) and death/long-term ventilation (LTV) at 1 year

Association with outcomes on univariate analysis
Died (n=15)Alive (n=77)P valueDeath/NDI (n=28)No death/NDI (n=47)P valueDeath/LTV (n=22)No death/LTV (n=70)P value
Gestational age (weeks)27.0 (24.1–27.7)26.1 (24.7–28.3)0.81626.4 (24.6–27.4)27.0 (25.1–28.7)0.17926.8 (24.3–28.4)26.1 (25–28.1)0.826
Birth weight (g)705 (570–869)755 (621–930)0.316750 (610–892)775 (604–1048)0.511706 (579–874)775 (611–960)0.385
Birth weight <10th centile7 (46.7%)29 (37.7%)0.51310 (35.7%)22 (46.8%)0.3479 (40.9%)27 (38.6%)0.845
Male sex7 (46%)48 (62%)0.25716 (57.1%)30 (63.8%)0.56511 (50%)44 (62.9%)0.283
Received antenatal steroids15 (100%)68 (88.3%)0.34624 (85.7%)46 (97.9%)0.06120 (90.9%)63 (90%)1.0
Received postnatal steroids12 (80%)43 (55.8%)0.08120 (71.4%)25 (53.2%)0.11917 (77.3%)38 (54.3%)0.055
Duration postnatal steroids (days)31 (10–53)8 (0–27)0.02923 (0–54)0 (0–32)0.03029 (8–53)4 (0–24)0.009
Age first steroid (days)23 (7–63)11 (0–30)0.08113 (0–120)0 (0–27.3)0.13418 (2–46)10 (0–28)0.093
Starting dose dexamethasone (µg/kg/day)87.5 (15–142.5)25 (0–120)0.09350 (0–120)0 (0–120)0.242100 (0–150)0 (0–120)0.033
Maximum dose dexamethasone (µg/kg/day)120 (30–120)0 (0–120)0.03260 (0–150)0 (0–120)0.095120 (0–200)0 (0–120)0.011
Duration initial ventilation (days)23 (9–43)16 (5–34)0.26922 (7–42)11 (3–24)0.06924 (6–44)16 (5–30)0.213
Duration total ventilation (days)23 (11–42)30 (18–54)0.21523 (11–42)34 (18–52)0.10824 (11–43)33 (18–53)0.145
Any ventilation ≥36 weeks12 (80%)24 (31.2%)<0.00117 (60.7%)13 (27.7%)0.00515 (68.2%)21 (30%)0.001
Any ventilation ≥38 weeks12 (80%)18 (23.4%)<0.00115 (53.6%)9 (19.1%)0.00214 (63.6%)16 (22.9%)<0.001
Any CPAP/BiPAP ≥38 weeks11 (73.3%)31 (40.3%)0.01915 (53.6%)20 (42.6%)0.35510 (45.5%)10 (14.3%)0.052
Any high flow ≥38 weeks8 (53.3%)71 (92.2%)0.00120 (71.4%)45 (95.7%)0.00414 (63.6%)28 (40%)0.002
Received inhaled nitric oxide7 (46.7%)23 (29.9%)0.23612 (42.9%)14 (29.8%)0.259 (40.9%)20 (28.6%)0.141
Received HFOV12 (80%)39 (50.6%)0.03617 (60.7%)26 (55.3%)0.64814 (63.6%)65 (92.9%)0.061
Pulmonary hypertension*12 (80%)18/74 (24.3%)<0.00116 (57.1%)10/46 (21.7%)0.00213 (59.1%)46 (65.7%)<0.001
Received sildenafil*10 (66.7%)12/75 (16%)<0.00111 (39.3%)8/46 (17.4%)0.03714 (63.6%)8/68 (11.8%)<0.001
Association with outcomes on binomial logistic regression analysis
Death
aOR (95% CI)
P valueDeath/NDI
aOR (95% CI)
P valueDeath/LTV
aOR (95% CI)
P value
Gestational age (weeks)1.42 (0.85 to 2.37)0.1830.96 (0.66 to 1.42)0.8491.33 (0.87 to 2.05)0.188
Birth weight (g)1.0 (0.99 to 1.00)0.4391.00 (1.0 to 1.0)0.1831.00 (1.0 to 1.0)0.758
Male sex0.40 (0.09 to 1.87)0.2420.70 (0.20 to 2.38)0.5620.40 (0.11 to 1.43)0.159
Received antenatal steroids0.02 (0.001 to 0.40)0.0100.71 (0.11 to 4.68)0.721
Received postnatal steroids3.42 (0.55 to 21.16)0.1864.33 (0.96 to 19.52)0.0572.91 (0.66 to 12.78)0.158
Any ventilation ≥38 weeks10.95 (1.97 to 60.79)0.0065.73 (1.45 to 22.70)0.0135.95 (1.51 to 23.46)0.011
Received HFOV2.52 (0.42 to 15.03)0.3090.47 (1.22 to 1.81)0.2731.33 (0.34 to 5.15)0.681
Pulmonary hypertension6.88 (1.47 to 32.28)0.0153.71 (1.001 to 13.72)0.0495.58 (1.61 to 19.40)0.007
  • Results of univariate analysis reported as number (%) or median (IQR); results of regression analysis reported as aOR (95% CI).

  • *Reported for infants with complete data only.

  • aOR, adjusted OR; BiPAP, bilevel positive airway pressure; CPAP, continuous positive airway pressure; HFOV, high-frequency oscillatory ventilation.