Table 2

Comparison of incidence of and time to achieve return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), plasma epinephrine concentrations and cumulative doses of epinephrine among the study groups

Incidence of ROSC
Compared groups AOR Lower CI Upper CI P value
0.03 vs 0.01 mg/kg epinephrine dose11.431.16112.250.04*
High flush versus low flush4.350.4542.320.12
Incidence of ROSC after first dose of epinephrine
AOR Lower CI Upper CI P value
0.03 vs 0.01 mg/kg epinephrine dose8.280.8283.580.07
High flush versus low flush5.840.62550.12
Time to achieve ROSC from start of ventilation
AHR Lower CI Upper CI P value
0.03 vs 0.01 mg/kg dose5.081.715.250.005*
High flush versus low flush3.51.279.710.02*
Plasma epinephrine concentrations at 1 min after epinephrine and flush
Compared groups AGMR Lower CI Upper CI P value
0.01 mg/kg dose: high flush vs low flush6.051.4325.70.02*
0.03 mg/kg dose: high flush vs low flush0.980.214.50.97
Low flush: 0.01 mg/kg vs 0.03 mg/kg dose of epinephrine11.342.1360.310.006*
High flush: 0.01 mg/kg vs 0.03 mg/kg dose of epinephrine1.830.506.610.34
0.03 mg/kg-high flush vs 0.01 mg/kg-low flush11.042.2055.270.005*
0.03 mg/kg-low flush vs 0.01 mg/kg-high flush1.810.487.310.35
ROSC after first dose of epinephrine vs no ROSC after first dose of epinephrine0.470.181.200.11
Cumulative dose of epinephrine
Compared groups Effect size Lower CI Upper CI P value
High flush versus low flush (AGMR)0.980.961.00050.06
0.03 vs 0.01 mg/kg epinephrine doses (AGMR)1.020.99931.030.06
Cumulative dose of epinephrine between lambs that achieved ROSC and those that did not achieve ROSC
ROSC after epinephrine doses versus no ROSC after epinephrine doses mean difference (Satterthwaite-adjusted Student’s t-test)0.020.00010.050.049*
  • Low flush=1 mL (~0.25–0.27 mL/kg), high flush=3 mL/kg≈10–12 mL.

  • *P<0.05.

  • AGMR, adjusted geometric mean ratio; AHR, adjusted HR; AOR, adjusted OR; ROSC, return of spontaneous circulation.