Table 4

Neonatal outcomes

Cases n=1041Controls n=1984
n%n%
Apgar score <7 at 5 min
 Yes22221.5100.5
 Missing72
 Neonatal resuscitation
 Yes44843.2512.6
 Missing52
Type of resuscitation (among those who received resuscitation)
 Stimulation37583.74792.2
 Positioning/Managing airway36280.82752.9
 Five inflation breaths38686.23160.8
 Oxygen26158.31121.6
 Ventilation breaths27761.81019.6
 Intubation7717.20
 Chest compression327.112.0
 Neonatal resuscitation drug92.00
Hierarchy of resuscitation (among those who received resuscitation)*
 Airway (A): stimulation/positioning only153.41733.3
 Breathing 1 (B1): A or five inflation breaths7316.31733.3
 Breathing 2 (B2): A or B1 or oxygen/ventilation breaths27561.41631.4
 Breathing 3 (B3): A or B1 or B2 or intubation5111.40
 Chest compression (C): A or B or chest compression255.612.0
 Drugs: A or B or C or neonatal drugs92.00
Neonatal team consulted while baby in midwifery unit
 Yes89386.21366.9
 Missing54
Primary reason neonatal team consulted
 Respiratory problems57264.62619.7
 Suspected infection313.51612.1
 Suspected perinatal asphyxia8910.11410.6
 Meconium aspiration546.12015.2
 Congenital anomaly182.0129.1
 Feeding problems182.043.0
 Physical trauma/birth injury111.264.6
 Other9310.53425.8
 Missing74
Age of baby when neonatal team first consulted (hours)
 Mean (SD)4.5(7.2)6.9(10.6)
 Median (IQR)0.6(0.7 to 6.3)2.2(0.3 to 8.5)
Skin to skin
 Yes88586.1192197.2
 Missing137
Initiation of breast feeding
 Yes79477.0162282.0
 Missing106
Age of baby at neonatal admission (hours) n=1038 n=13†
 Mean (SD)6.4(8.4)10.1(14.4)
 Median (IQR)2.3(0.6 to 9.5)2.1(2.0 to 11.5)
Where was baby admitted from
 Birth room80277.7
 Postnatal ward23022.3
 Missing6
Highest level of care baby received
 Intensive care18217.7
 High dependency care31931.0
 Special care52751.3
 Missing10
Reasons for admission‡
 Respiratory problems73170.4
 Suspected infection43842.2
 Suspected perinatal asphyxia1029.8
 Meconium aspiration868.3
 Hypoglycaemia575.5
 Congenital anomaly464.4
 Feeding problems444.2
 Jaundice323.1
 Cardiac problems232.2
 Pulse oximetry151.5
 Abnormal movements141.4
 Hypothermia131.3
 Physical trauma/birth injury111.1
 Maternal substance abuse60.6
 Other§323.1
Diagnoses on discharge‡
 Sepsis53651.9
 Respiratory distress syndrome42941.6
 Congenital pneumonia414.0
 Transient tachypnoea of the newborn646.2
 Pneumothorax181.7
 Hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy747.2
 Meconium aspiration syndrome626.0
 PPHN131.3
 Hypoglycaemia636.1
 Jaundice686.6
 Feeding problems302.9
 Birth injury80.8
 Congenital anomaly565.4
 Cardiac problems201.9
 Neonatal abstinence syndrome/social40.4
 Normal161.6
 Insufficient information/not specified787.6
 Other171.6
  • *Mutually exclusive hierarchy in which each category includes those babies who received that type of resuscitation, excluding those who also received any resuscitation type higher in the hierarchy.

  • †Thirteen babies in the control group were admitted to neonatal care for less than <4 hours. Other data for these 13 babies not shown because of small numbers.

  • ‡More than one reason for admission/discharge diagnosis could be given.

  • §Other includes: shoulder dystocia, observation, skin rash, intrauterine growth restriction/low birth weight and reason not specified.