Table 3

Factors associated with neonatal admission or mortality

Cases n=1040Controls n=1982Unadjusted analysisAdjusted analysis n=3002
n%n%OR(95% CI)aOR*(95% CI)P value
Ethnic group0.01
 White
 (UK and Ireland)
64161.6121061.011
 White (other)17016.324612.41.30(1.05 to 1.62)1.28(1.01 to 1.63)
 Asian14013.528914.60.91(0.76 to 1.10)0.94(0.76 to 1.16)
 Black514.91346.80.72(0.50 to 1.03)0.73(0.51 to 1.04)
 Other393.81055.30.70(0.46 to 1.06)0.68(0.44 to 1.05)
Previous pregnancies ≥24 weeks<0.0001
 052350.270435.51.98(1.70 to 2.31)2.09(1.78 to 2.45)
 132831.587544.111
 2 or more19018.340520.41.25(1.00 to 1.56)1.38(1.10 to 1.74)
Sex of baby<0.0001
 Female40639.297349.111
 Male63060.8100950.91.50(1.27 to 1.76)1.46(1.23 to 1.75)
Current pregnancy maternal problem†0.03
 None95091.6184793.411
 One or more878.41316.61.29(0.98 to 1.71)1.40(1.03 to 1.90)
Duration of second stage of labour‡0.01
 Within guidance88284.7175288.311
 Possibly prolonged706.7924.61.51(1.06 to 2.15)1.42(1.01 to 2.01)
 Not recorded898.61407.11.26(0.97 to 1.65)1.38(1.05 to 1.81)
Pethidine/Diamorphine during labour0.04
 No88785.7177989.811
 Yes14814.320310.21.46(1.16 to 1.85)1.31(1.02 to 1.68)
Shoulder dystocia<0.0001
 No97293.9195898.811
 Yes636.1241.25.29(3.27 to 8.55)5.06(3.00 to 8.52)
Birth weight (g)<0.0001
 <2500252.4120.64.65(2.34 to 9.24)4.12(1.97 to 8.60)
 2500–299913012.623311.71.25(0.95 to 1.63)1.20(0.91 to 1.59)
 3000–349938337.085543.211
 3500–399933031.967233.91.10(0.90 to 1.33)1.10(0.90 to 1.34)
 4000–449913713.21839.21.67(1.29 to 2.16)1.64(1.25 to 2.14)
 ≥4500313.0261.32.66(1.57 to 4.52)2.10(1.17 to 3.76)
  • *Adjusted for all other variables in the model.

  • †GBS; BMI >35 kg/m2; post-term; pre-eclampsia/pregnancy-induced hypertension; preterm prelabour rupture of membranes; substance misuse/alcohol; gestational diabetes.

  • ‡From start of active second stage to birth: within guidance ≤2 hours (nulliparous), ≤1 hour (multiparous); possibly prolonged >2 hours (nulliparous), >1 hour (multiparous).

  • BMI, body mass index; GBS, group B streptococcus.