Table 1

Family sociodemographic and perinatal factors associated with routine follow-up for children born very preterm, at 5 years of age

Does child have routine check-ups for children born very preterm at 5 years?NNo, neverNot anymoreYes, stillReference: still in follow-up at 5 years
No, neverNot anymore
%%%aRRR95% CIaRRR95% CI
Mother’s age at delivery (years)
 ≤2442217.355.227.52.01.2 to 3.51.10.8 to 1.6
 25–3420579.263.027.8refref
 ≥3510986.867.226.00.70.5 to 1.21.00.8 to 1.3
Parity at delivery
 Multiparous21568.363.628.1refref
 Nulliparous139011.262.726.11.10.7 to 1.61.00.8 to 1.2
Multiple birth
 No (singleton)253110.662.027.4refref
 Yes (twins or more)10567.565.427.10.50.3 to 0.91.00.7 to 1.2
Mother’s educational level
 Lower (ISCED levels 0–2: lower secondary or lower)58913.758.927.42.01.1 to 3.50.90.7 to 1.3
 Intermediate (ISCED levels 3–5: upper or post-secondary, non-tertiary or short cycle tertiary)14749.764.026.31.40.9 to 2.20.80.7 to 1.1
 Higher (ISCED levels 6–8: bachelor degree or higher)14786.366.327.4RefRef
Country of birth
 Native28578.963.527.6RefRef
 European born2387.763.928.40.90.4 to 2.00.80.5 to 1.2
 Born outside Europe47613.361.924.92.51.4 to 4.21.41.0 to 1.9
GA, completed weeks
 <263055.553.940.60.20.1 to 0.40.30.2 to 0.5
 26–276576.054.239.90.20.1 to 0.40.50.4 to 0.6
 28–299376.366.127.60.30.2 to 0.50.70.6 to 0.9
 30–31168813.866.220.0RefRef
Small for GA**
 <3 centile7667.762.030.20.50.3 to 0.70.70.5 to 0.9
 3–9 centile41711.059.329.61.00.6 to 1.60.70.5 to 0.9
>10 centile240410.263.826.0RefRef
Severe neonatal morbidity††
 No314110.463.526.1RefRef
 Yes3655.057.737.30.50.2 to 1.10.90.7 to 1.3
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia
 No303410.764.424.9RefRef
 Yes4663.853.842.40.40.2 to 0.80.60.5 to 0.9
Congenital anomaly
 No32929.962.727.4RefRef
 Yes2958.565.526.00.60.3 to 1.20.90.6 to 1.2
Child sex
 Male191410.059.330.70.90.6 to 1.30.70.6 to 0.9
 Female16739.467.123.5RefRef
Country (region)(ref sample mean)(ref sample mean)
 Portugal (Lisbon, Northern Region)4254.836.858.40.60.3 to 1.20.20.1 to 0.2
 Belgium (Flanders)25912.840.546.73.62.0 to 6.30.30.2 to 0.4
 Netherlands (Central Eastern)1466.352.241.51.70.7 to 4.10.50.3 to 0.7
 France (Burgundy, Ile-de-France, Northern Region)77010.358.631.23.01.9 to 4.60.60.5 to 0.8
 Denmark (Eastern Region)15110.862.526.76.32.9 to 13.80.90.6 to 1.4
 Sweden (Greater Stockholm)1412.870.726.61.10.2 to 6.31.00.7 to 1.5
 UK (East Midlands, Northern, Yorkshire and the Humber)41913.669.417.010.96.1 to 19.41.91.4 to 2.7
 Germany (Hesse, Saarland)26621.565.413.021.111.3 to 39.41.91.2 to 3.1
 Estonia (entire country)1330.087.212.80.00.0 to 0.02.61.6 to 4.2
 Italy (Emilia-Romagna, Lazio, Marche)6914.583.212.34.52.3 to 8.72.51.9 to 3.3
 Poland (Wielkopolska)18613.475.710.918.99.4 to 38.32.91.8 to 4.8
  • Inverse probability weights after multiple imputation were used for all analyses.

  • *Using intrauterine charts modelled for the Effective Perinatal Intensive care in Europe cohort.

  • †Intraventricular haemorrhage grades III and IV, cystic periventricular leucomalacia, retinopathy of prematurity stages III–V or necrotising enterocolitis needing surgery.

  • aRRR, adjusted relative risk ratio; GA, gestational age; ISCED, International Standard Classification of Education.