Table 2

Patient characteristics

Patient characteristicsAll infants n=28NSurvivors n=17NNon-survivors n=11NP value
Before 36 weeks PMA
Male sex, n (%)18 (64)2811 (65)177 (64)111.00
Gestational age, weeks26.4±1.62826.4±1.41726.4±1.8110.40
Birth weight, g790.0±234.228820.6±267.817742.7±171.2110.36
SGA, n (%)8 (29)285 (29)173 (27)111.00
PPROM, n (%)5 (19)273 (19)162 (18)111.00
Pre-eclampsia, n (%)9 (33)275 (31)164 (36)111.00
Multigestation, n (%)2 (7)271 (6)161 (9)111.00
Presence of NEC, n (%)6 (21)281 (6)175 (45)11 0.02
Presence of IVH, n (%)9 (32)285 (29)174 (36)111.00
 Grade I4 (14%)282 (12%)172 (18%)110.71
 Grade II4 (14%)283 (18%)171 (9%)11
 Grade III1 (4%)280 (0%)171 (9%)11
 Grade IV0 (0%)280 (0%)170 (0%)11NA
Presence of ROP, n (%)9 (32)286 (35)173 (27)111.00
Received dexamethasone, n (%)6 (21)283 (18)173 (27)111.00
Received iNO therapy, n (%)3 (11)282 (12)171 (9)110.22
At and beyond 36 weeks PMA
Respiratory status at 36 weeks PMA 0.02
 Ventilator, n (%)0 (0)280 (0)170 (0)11
 CPAP, n (%)8 (29)282 (12)176 (55)11
 Supplemental O2, n (%)15 (54)2810 (59)175 (45)11
BPD, n (%)28 (100)2817 (100)1711 (100)110.56
 Mild BPD, n (%)4 (14)283 (18)171 (9)11
 Moderate BPD, n (%)1 (4)281 (6)170 (0)11
 Severe BPD, n (%)23 (82)2813 (76)1710 (91)11
Age at PH confirmation beyond 36 weeks PMA, months2.5 (1.6–4.6)282.7 (1.7–5.4)172.1 (0.4–3.1)110.12
Suprasystemic pressures, n (%)9 (32)283 (18)176 (55)110.095
PDA, n (%)21 (84)2511 (73)1510 (91)110.36
PAH-targeted therapy, n (%)14 (50)2810 (59)174 (36)110.44
 Monotherapy, n (%)11 (39)289 (53)172 (18)110.12
 Dual therapy, n (%)3 (11)281 (6)172 (18)110.54
Dexamethasone, n (%)7 (25)284 (24)173 (27)111.00
iNO therapy, n (%)7 (25)284 (35)173 (27)110.22
PH resolved, n (%)16 (57)2816 (94%)170 (0%)11 <0.0001
  • Comparisons between survivors and non-survivors were performed with Student’s t-test, Mann-Whitney U test and χ2 test, used accordingly. The p value shown is from the comparison between the survivors and non-survivors. Data are shown as N (%), mean±SD or median (IQR).

  • BPD, bronchopulmonary dysplasia; CPAP, continuous positive airway pressure; iNO, inhaled nitric oxide; IVH, any grade of interventricular haemorrhage; NA, not available; NEC, necrotising enterocolitis; PAH, pulmonary arterial hypertension; PDA, patent ductus arteriosus; PFO, patent foramen ovale; PH, pulmonary hypertension; PMA, postmenstrual age; PPROM, prolonged premature rupture of membranes (>24 hours ruptured membranes before <36 weeks gestational age); ROP, any grade of retinopathy of prematurity; SGA, small for gestational age.