Table 2

Maternal and neonatal characteristics

CharacteristicsChettri et al, 201531 Nangia et al, 201632 Kumar et al, 201933 Singh et al, 201934
Non-ETS=61ETS=61Non-ETS=88ETS=87Non-ETS=66ETS=66Non-ETS=77ETS=75
Maternal age (years), mean±SD25.2±4.824.3±4.5NR25.2±4.026.4±4.526.6±3.727.1±3.6
Mode of delivery
SVD, n (%)9 (15)13 (21)NR17 (26)8 (12)18 (23)26 (35)
Caesarean/low segment C-section, n (%)30 (49)29 (48)37 (42)34 (39)49 (74)57 (86)30 (39)30 (40)
Gravida
Gravida (<2nd gravida), n (%)NR66 (75)65 (75)NRNR
Multigravida, n (%)NRNRNR38 (49)33 (44)
Antenatal care
Antenatally registered, n (%)NR49 (56)58 (67)NRNR
Antenatal care (≥3 visits), n (%)NRNR23 (35)24 (36)NR
Antenatal care (≥4 visits), n (%)NRNRNR57 (74)49 (65)
Maternal risk factors
Maternal risk factors I anaemia; Hb <10.5 g/dL), n (%) (#Hb <10 g/dL)18 (30)17 (28)NRNR9 (12)# 12 (16)#
Maternal risk factors II
(PIH, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia),
6 (10)9 (15)Included in other risk factors15 (23)13 (20)19 (25)23 (31)
Other maternal risk factors III
λ(PIH, HT, GDM, renal diseases/oligohydramnios/ cardiovascular disease), n (%)
πGDM on insulin, hypothyroid, rheumatic heart disease
3 (5)π 3 (5)π 15 (17)λ 22 (25)λ  NR3 (4)π 2 (3)π
Oligohydramnios, n (%)6 (10)8 (13)NR6 (9)7 (11)1 (1)2 (3)
Premature rupture of membranes, n (%)10 (16)11 (18)NRNR23 (30)19 (25)
Prolonged rupture of membranes, n (%)NRNRNR13 (17)13 (17)
Thick meconium, n (%)39 (64)42 (69)69 (78)61 (70)30 (45)28 (42)47 (61)47 (63)
Neonatal characteristics
Male, n (%)36 (59)33 (54)52 (59)52 (60)29 (44)35 (53)43 (56)40 (53)
Birth weight (g), mean±SD2900±3502870±4902763±5332649±437 2528±5982620±6962461±1922462±315
Gestational age (weeks) median (IQR)
#Chettri et al, 2015 n (%)
37–416/7  weeks
57 (93)#
≥42 weeks
4 (7)#
37–416/7  weeks
55 (90)#
≥42 weeks
6 (10)#
39 (37–40)39 (37–40)38 (36–40)38 (36–40)38.56±2.038.57±2.2
Apgar Score at 1 min ≤3, n (%)36 (59)37 (61)22 (25)18 (21)27 (41)33 (50)25 (32)29 (39)
Apgar Score at 5 min ≤3, n (%)2 (3)2 (3)NRNR4 (6)3 (5)0 (0)1 (1)
Apgar Score at 5 min <7, n (%)27 (44)30 (49)13 (15)16 (18)15 (23)13 (20)26 (34)30 (40)
Cord blood pH6.90±0.326.92±0.367.14±0.137.13±0.14NRNR7.09±0.117.08±0.11
Cord blood base deficit14±6.2815±7.848.23±6.198.06±5.78NRNR15.77±3.1315.86±3.22
  • All values are reported as frequency (%), unless otherwise noted.

  • ETS, endotracheal suctioning; GDM, gestational diabetes mellitus; Hb, haemoglobin; HT, hypertension; Non-ETS, no endotracheal suctioning; NR, not reported; PIH, pregnancy-induced hypertension; SD, standard deviation; SVD, normal spontaneous vaginal delivery.