Table 1

Summary of the four included randomised controlled trials (RCTs)

StudyChettri et al, 201531 Nangia et al, 201632 Kumar et al, 201933 Singh et al, 201934
Type of studyRCTRCTRCTRCT
LocationPondicherry, IndiaNew Delhi, IndiaVaranasi, IndiaLucknow, India
Inclusion criteriaTerm neonate
(GA ≥37 weeks)
  • MSAF

  • Non-vigorous

Term neonate
(GA 37–41 weeks)
  • Cephalic presentation

  • Singleton

  • MSAF

  • Non-vigorous

Late preterm and term neonate
(GA ≥34 weeks)
  • MSAF

  • Non-vigorous

Late preterm and term neonate
(GA ≥34 weeks)
  • MSAF

  • Non-vigorous

Exclusion criteria
  • Major congenital anomalies

  • No consent

  • Major congenital malformation

  • Refusal to participate

  • Major congenital anomalies

  • Maternal chorioamnionitis

  • No consent

  • Major congenital malformation

  • No consent

Study periodFebruary 2013 to July 2014May 2012 to August 2013January 2014 to September 2015September 2011 to August 2012
ResuscitatorsOne paediatric resident trained in neonatal resuscitationNot reportedTwo paediatric residents trained in neonatal resuscitationAt least two paediatric residents trained in neonatal resuscitation
Time to non-vigorous assessmentAt 5–10 s after birthAt birthAt birthAt 5–10 s after birth
ProceduresIntubated with endotracheal suctioning immediately after birthOropharyngeal suctioning then intubated with endotracheal suctioningOropharyngeal suctioning then intubated with endotracheal suctioningIntubated with endotracheal suctioning immediately after birth
Number of times endotracheal suctioning performedMaximum of 2 timesNot reportedGenerally, 2–3 timesMaximum of 2 times
  • GA, gestational age; MSAF, meconium-stained amniotic fluid.