Table 2

Risk of bias of the included studies

StudyRandom sequence generationAllocation concealmentBlinding of participants and personnelBlinding of outcome assessmentIncomplete outcome dataSelective reportingOther bias
Rabe et al 17 LowLowHighLowLowLowLow
Katheria et al 16 LowLowLowLowLowHigh*High†
Shirk et al 18 LowLowHighHighHigh‡LowLow
Finn et al 15 LowLowHighLowLowLowHigh§
Katheria et al 8 LowLowLowLowLowLowHigh¶
Hosono et al 22 UnclearLowHighLowLowLowLow
March et al 29 LowLowHighLowHigh**LowHigh¶
Alan et al 19 UnclearLowHighLowLowLowLow
Josephsen et al 23 UnclearUnclearUnclearUnclearLowUnclearUnclear
Katheria et al 24 UnclearLowHighLowLowLowLow
Kumar et al 26 LowLowHighHighLowLowLow
Kilicdag et al 25 UnclearLowUnclearUnclearLowLowUnclear††
Song et al 32 LowUnclearUnclearLowLowLowLow
Alavi et al 20 High‡‡HighUnclearUnclearLowLowUnclear††
El-Naggar et al 21 LowLowLowLowLowLowHigh†
Lago Leal 201827 UnclearLowLowLowLowLowLow
Li et al 28 UnclearUnclearUnclearLowLowLowLow
Ram Mohan et al 30 LowLowHighHighLowLowLow
Silahli et al 31 LowLowHighLowLowLowLow
  • *Outcomes reported only for 154 caesarean delivered neonates, no outcomes reported for 43 vaginally delivered infants.

  • †Crossover rate of >10% in DCC arm.

  • ‡27% infants excluded after randomisation.

  • §Underpowered for the primary outcome.

  • ¶Study discontinued after second interim analysis, incomplete sample size).

  • **Pregnancies continuing beyond 28 weeks were excluded after randomisation.

  • ††Sample size calculation not mentioned.

  • ‡‡First 40 patients were milked, next 40 patients received ICC.