Table 1

bCPAP design variations

Interface resistanceDead spaceExpiratory tubing resistanceComment
Sahni and Wung5 LowLowLowUsed in several trials and manuscripts; Fisher & Paykel bCPAP has a similar design
Audu et al 8 HighLowHighDescription of modified oxygen cannula (figures 1–3) later used in clinical trial
Brown et al 31 LowHighLow*Description of the first version of the Pumani CPAP (figure 1)
Daga et al 9 HighLowHighClinical trial using modified oxygen cannula with seal (figures 1–5)
Duke†10 HighLowHighReview including modified oxygen cannula (figures 2 and 3). Other designs: original bCPAP (figure 1) and high-resistance interface (RAM type, figure 5).
Kawaza et al 32 LowHighLow*Clinical trial including Pumani first version, reference to Brown et al
Chisti et al11 HighLowHighRandomised trial including modified oxygen cannula, reference to Duke
McAdams et al 23 HighLowUnknownCase series and description of bCPAP with high-resistance interface (RAM type) (figure 2)
Ezenwa et al 12 HighLowHighRetrospective observational study using modified oxygen cannula (figures 1 and 2)
WHO†13 HighLowHighManual including modified oxygen cannula (figures 15 and 16). Other designs: original CPAP (figure 14).
Bennett et al 33 HighHighLow*Description of a bCPAP system with a high-resistance interface (RAM type) and connector tube similar to Brown et al (figure 1)
Falk et al 30 LowLowHighDescription of the second version of the Pumani CPAP (figure 2)
Bjorklund et al 39 HighLowHighClinical trial using modified oxygen cannula with seal (figure 1)
Thaddanee et al 14 HighUnknownHighObservational trial and description of two modified oxygen cannula systems (figures 1 and 2).
Amadi et al 15 HighLowHighObservational trial and description of modified oxygen cannula systems (figure 1)
  • List of manuscripts with descriptions or use of bCPAP systems with design alterations from the original (top row). Dimensions are not always reported in manuscripts and some include several design variations. The figures or photographs refered to in the comment column can be found in the cited manuscripts.

  • *Data in the manuscript indicate that expiratory tubing resistance was not high.

  • †Properties refer to only one system in the manuscript. Details are provided in comment column.

  • bCPAP, bubble continuous positive airway pressure.