Table 1

Inclusion and exclusion criteria for participants at all study hospitals

Inclusion criteriaExclusion criteria
All of:
  1. Admitted to nursery of study hospitals during the study period.

  2. Preterm or low birth weight; or received oxygen during admission.

Any of:
  1. Prescribed or required bubble CPAP, high-flow oxygen (>2‚ÄČL/min), or mechanical ventilation.

  2. Received palliative care.

  • . CPAP, continuous positive airway pressure.