Outcome | No. of participants (%) | ||

Azithromycin (n=10) | Placebo (n=11) | P value* | |

Ureaplasma-free survival, n (%) | 8 (80) | 0 (0) | <0.001 |

Survival, n (%) | 8 (80) | 7 (64) | 0.64 |

Ureaplasma clearance post-treatment, n (%) | 10 (100) | 1 (9) | <0.001 |

Survival free of physiological BPD, n (%)† | 5 (50) | 2 (18) | 0.18 |

Physiological BPD, n (%)† | 3/8 (38) | 6/8 (75) | 0.31 |

Modified Shennan BPD, n (%)† | 3/8 (38) | 6/8 (75) | 0.31 |

Moderate/severe BPD, n (%)† | 3/8 (38) | 6/8 (75) | 0.31 |

Discharge home, n (%) | 5 (50) | 2 (18) | 0.18 |

Postnatal steroids, n (%) | 4 (40) | 6 (55) | 0.67 |

Passed hearing screen, n (%)‡ | 6/8 (75) | 6/7 (86) | >0.99 |

Total duration IMV, median (IQR)§ | 24.5 (8–72) | 53 (31 to –) | 0.11 |

Total duration supplemental oxygen, median (IQR)§ | 95.5 (39–174) | 142 (114 to –) | 0.13 |

Duration of hospitalisation, median (IQR)§ | 80.5 (27–173) | 134 (91 to –) | 0.08 |

*P values for categorical outcomes are based on Fisher’s exact tests. P values for quantitative analysis are based on two-sample Wilcoxon tests.

†Excludes five participants (two azithromycin, three placebo) who died prior to 36 weeks PMA.

‡Excludes six (two azithromycin, four placebo) participants who died before hearing screen was obtained.

§In computing the median and IQR, those who died are included as having the worst outcomes. For the tracheal aspirate

*Ureaplasma*-positive participants, more than 25% died, so it was not possible to specify the actual 75th percentile.BPD, bronchopulmonary dysplasia; IMV, intermittent mandatory ventilation; PMA, postmenstrual age.