Table 2

Singletons versus multiples: demographics, DR measures and outcomes

Singletons
(n=433)
Multiples
(n=96)
p valueAdjusted
p value*
Neonatal and maternal demographics
 Gestational age, weeks, median (range)30.6 (23.3–32.9)31.0 (24.6–32.9) 0.001
 Birth weight, grams, median (range)1410 (400–3012)1510 (600–2560)0.08
 Caesarean section, %5491 <0.0001
 Male sex, %6248 0.02
 Antenatal steroids, %96980.6
Delivery room measures
 1 min Apgar <3, %1060.30.5
 5 min Apgar <7, %20130.10.1
 Delivery room intubation, %1490.30.6
 Delivery room chest compression, %320.60.5
 Admission temperature, °C, mean (SD)37.0 (0.5)36.9 (0.5)0.10.2
Respiratory and haematological outcomes
 Surfactant, %21200.90.5
 Any intubation, %29190.080.07
 Pneumothorax, %320.60.8
 Early (<72 hours) red blood cell transfusion, %750.70.8
 Any red blood cell transfusion, %25200.30.9
 Initial haematocrit (<2 hours), mean (SD)†48.6 (7.1)50.2 (8.3)0.050.3
 Haematocrit at 12–24 hours, mean (SD)‡50.5 (8.5)54.3 (7.8) 0.01 0.02
 Polycythaemia (haematocrit >65%), %00
 Peak bilirubin, mg/dL, mean (SD)8.7 (2.7)8.7 (2.4)0.90.6
 Exchange transfusion, %00
Neonatal mortality and morbidity
 NICU death, %510.10.2
 Severe intraventricular haemorrhage, %710.060.1
 Chronic lung disease, %15110.30.6
 Late-onset sepsis, %630.20.5
 Necrotising enterocolitis, %420.40.9
 Severe retinopathy of prematurity, %450.50.5
 Survival without major morbidity, %76820.20.7
  • *Adjusted for birth weight, delivery type and sex.

  • †Missing data=6%.

  • ‡Missing data=39%.