Table 4

Neonates without electrographic seizures on the EEG, n=139

Never received AED (n=95)Received AED at any time (n=44)Received AED before start of EEG monitoring (n=24)Received AED after start of EEG monitoring (n=27)*
n (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)
Final diagnosis
 HIE grade
  Mild47 (49.5)3 (6.8)2 (8.3)1 (3.7)
  Moderate11 (11.6)21 (47.7)9 (37.5)15 (55.6)
  Severe1 (1.1)6 (13.6)4 (16.7)3 (11.1)
 Metabolic/genetic disorder4 (4.2)0 (0.0)
 Stroke3 (3.2)5 (11.4)3 (12.5)4 (14.8)
 Suspected seizures—unconfirmed9 (9.5)3 (6.8)3 (12.5)1 (3.7)
 Sepsis/meningitis3 (3.2)1 (2.3)1 (4.2)0 (0.0)
 Intracranial haemorrhage1 (1.1)4 (9.1)1 (4.2)3 (11.1)
 Perinatal asphyxia without clinical encephalopathy7 (7.4)0 (0.0)
 Other9 (9.5)1 (2.3)1 (4.2)0 (0.0)
Type of AED†
 Phenobarbital42 (95.5)22 (91.7)25 (92.6)
 Midazolam7 (15.9)3 (12.5)4 (14.8)
 Phenytoin3 (6.8)3 (12.5)0 (0.0)
Liddocaine2 (4.5)0 (0.0)2 (7.4)
 Clonazepam2 (4.5)2 (8.3)0 (0.0)
 Bumetanide1 (2.3)0 (0.0)1 (3.7)
Number of types of AEDs administered†
 133 (75.0)19 (79.2)23 (85.2)
 29 (20.5)4 (16.7)3 (11.1)
 32 (4.5)1 (4.2)1 (3.7)
  • *Includes seven neonates who also received AED before start of EEG monitoring.

  • †For neonates who were administered an AED.

  • AED, antiepileptic drug; EEG, electroencephalography; HIE, hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy.