Table 2

Growth, growth velocity, body composition, non-fasting glucose, insulin level and HOMA-IR of premature AGA and SGA infants during follow-up visits (mean±SD for each group)

AGA (n=33)SGA (n=18)Unadjusted P values*Adjusted P values†
Visit 1
 Corrected age (months)14.1±1.013.9±1.00.310.50
 Weight (kg)9.6±1.28.2±1.2<0.001‡0.008‡
 Length (cm)76.6±3.473.1±3.0<0.001‡0.004‡
 BMI z-score−0.1±1.1−0.98±1.40.02‡0.18
 HC (cm)46.0±1.644.8±1.50.01‡0.04‡
Visit 2
 Corrected age (months)19.2±1.219.9±
 Weight (kg)10.7±1.29.7±1.40.02‡0.15
 Length (cm)82.8±4.680.0±
 BMI z-score−0.38±1.4−0.77±1.40.380.71
 HC (cm)47.1±1.746.2±
Discharge to visit 1
 Days from discharge433.2±40.5413.2±‡
 Change in weight (g/day)15.5±3.613.5±
 Change in length (cm/week)0.48±0.10.48±0.10.860.49
 Change in HC (cm/week)0.21±0.040.20±0.030.640.04‡
Visit 1 to visit 2
 Days from visit 1152.9±39.5186.3±55.30.03‡0.03‡
 Change in weight (g/day)23.2±14.420.5±14.90.530.26
 Change in length (cm/week)0.28±0.160.24±0.110.370.13
 Change in HC (cm/week)0.05±0.030.05±0.020.780.65
 Change in BMI z-score−0.21±0.840.25±1.100.02‡0.004‡
DXA (whole body scan)§
 BMC (g)361.6±38.5351.8±44.90.510.77
 BMD (g/cm2)0.46±0.030.46±0.040.710.80
 FM (kg)3.3±0.73.1±1.10.680.53
 FMI (kg/m2)4.7±1.14.8±1.60.870.94
 LM (kg)7.3±0.86.9±
 LMI (kg/m2)10.5±1.210.6±1.20.910.16
 % Fat30±4.829.8±6.40.910.41
 Regional trunk FM (kg)1.1±0.31.1±0.50.730.39
 Regional trunk FMI (kg/m2)1.6±0.41.7±0.60.970.74
 Regional trunk LM (kg)3.4±0.53.2±
 Regional trunk LMI (kg/m2)4.9±0.75.0±0.60.730.13
 Regional trunk %fat (%)24.4±5.523.9±7.00.820.33
Glucose (mmol/L)¶5.3±0.54.9±0.40.03‡0.06
Insulin (µU/mL)¶17.3±15.15.0±3.70.02‡0.02‡
  • *Independent samples t-test p values.

  • †Linear regression p value after adjusting for gestational age and diet at discharge.

  • ‡Statistically significant difference.

  • §For DXA whole body scan measurements, n=23 for AGA infants and n=11 for SGA infants.

  • ¶For non-fasting glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR, n=19 for AGA infants and n=10 for SGA infants.

  • AGA, appropriate for gestational age; BMC, bone mineral content; BMD, bone mineral density; BMI, body mass index; DXA, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; FM, fat mass; FMI, fat mass index; HC, head circumference; HOMA-IR, homeostatic model of assessment-insulin resistance; LM, lean mass; LMI, lean mass index; SGA, small for gestational age.