Table 3

Summary of data from randomised controlled trials and observational studies on the effects of various other strategies for BPD prevention on death and/or BPD (including lung function data)

Intervention: othersOutcomeN studiesN patientsEventsControl groupRR95% CI
Azithromycin vs placebo45 Death/BPD3363106/186118/1770.860.77 to 0.97
BPD331081/16190/1490.830.71 to 0.97
Vitamin A intramuscular vs placebo53 Death/BPD3935222/469248/4660.900.81 to 1.01
BPD4886190/442224/4440.850.74 to 0.98
Caffeine vs placebo48 BPD12006350/1006447/10000.64* 0.52 to 0.78
Caffeine vs placebo49 FVC z-score <5th centile11428/7419/680.31* 0.12 to 0.77
Caffeine vs placebo50
Early—postnatal days ≤3
BPD1822111/396190/4260.48* 0.36 to 0.65
Caffeine vs placebo50
Late—postnatal days>3
BPD11095239/567257/5280.77* 0.61 to 0.98
Early vs late caffeine51 Death/BPD129 0703681/14 5354591/14 53650.74* 0.69 to 0.80
Exclusive formula vs exclusive breastmilk56 BPD1462n.p.n.p.2.56* 1.33 to 5.04
Exclusive breastmilk57 BPD1254n.p.n.p.0.91* 0.82 to 0.99
  • *OR.

  • BPD, bronchopulmonary dysplasia; FVC, forced vital capacity; n.p., not provided; RR, relative risk.