Table 1

Ethical dilemmas of recording and reviewing neonatal resuscitation

Quality assurancePatient careResearchEducation Ethical values/principles
NeonateCan the impact of the technique deteriorate received care?Can the impact of the technique deteriorate received care? Non-maleficence
Is neonate research subject? Vulnerability
Research ethics
Should identifiability be precluded?Is the newborn identifiable when recordings are part of the medical record?Is de-identification of the recordings mandatory?Should identifiability be precluded? Privacy
Vulnerability
ParentsCan (information about) parents be captured on recordings?Can (information about) parents be captured on recordings?Can (information about) parents be captured on recordings?Can (information about) parents be captured on recordings? Privacy
Vulnerability
Should identifiability be precluded?Are parents identifiable when recordings are part of the medical record?Is de-identification of the recordings mandatory?Should identifiability be precluded? Privacy
Are parents informed?Are parents informed about the use of the technique during resuscitation of their child?How and when should parents be informed?Is parental consent needed for de-identified recordings? Voluntariness
Autonomy
Can parents refuse?Can parents refuse the use of the technique?Should parents consent? Voluntariness
Autonomy
Can parents view recordings? Transparency
Vulnerability
ProviderIs provider research subject? Vulnerability
Research ethics
Should identifiability be precluded?Should identifiability be precluded?Is de-identification of the recordings mandatory?Should identifiability be precluded? Privacy
Vulnerability
Can individual providers refuse to be recorded?Can individual providers refuse to be recorded?Should provider consent?Is provider consent needed for de-identified recordings? Voluntariness
Vulnerability
Autonomy
How are providers informed?How are providers informed?Are providers informed?Are providers informed? Vulnerability
Voluntariness
Can recordings be claimed for medicolegal purposes?Can recordings be claimed for medicolegal purposes? Vulnerability
Transparency
Which providers have access to the recordings?What is the impact on provider if parents can watch recording?Who has access to the recordings?Who has access to recordings? Privacy
Vulnerability
Voluntariness
Should be acted on observations of substandard care (ie, malpractice)?Should be acted on observations of substandard care (ie, malpractice)?Should be acted on observations of substandard care (ie, malpractice)? Professional ethics
Research ethics
Will recordings be deleted after review?Should recordings be part of medical record?Should recordings be stored de-identified?Should recordings be stored de-identified? Privacy
Vulnerability
For which period is data stored?For which period is data stored?For which period is data stored?For which period is data stored? Privacy