Table 1

Summary of randomised controlled trial data on the effects of various respiratory support strategies on death and/or BPD (including selected complications)

Intervention: different modes of respiratory supportOutcomeN studiesN patientsIntervention groupControl groupRR95% CI
NCPAP vs MV13 Death/BPD42782532/1296641/14860.910.84 to 0.99
BPD42536383/1182461/13540.910.82 to 1.01
NCPAP±LISA vs MV± INSURE14 Death/BPD43289614/1552737/17370.830.71 to 0.96
NCPAP+LISA vs MV±INSURE15 Death/BPD689590/447121/4480.750.59 to 0.94
BPD681456/41077/4040.720.53 to 0.97
NCPAP+LISA vs MV16 Death/BPD1189n.p.n.p.0.49* 0.30 to 0.79
INSURE vs MV16 Death/BPD2419n.p.n.p.0.71* 0.50 to 0.98
NCPAP vs MV16 Death/BPD32085n.p.n.p.0.58* 0.35 to 0.93
NIPPV vs NCPAP16 Death/BPD5775n.p.n.p.0.82* 0.53 to 1.24
NIPPV vs NCPAP17 BPD989960/45077/4490.780.58 to 1.06
sNIPPV vs NCPAP18 BPD318126/9338/880.640.44 to 0.95
VTV vs pressure-limited MV22 Death/BPD422453/11467/1100.790.62 to 1.01
BPD990974/325102/2950.680.53 to 0.87
PVL/grade 3–4 IVH644117/22735/2140.470.27 to 0.80
VTV vs pressure-limited MV23 BPD959658/31089/2860.610.46 to 0.82
Grade 3–4 IVH11707n.p.n.p.0.550.39 to 0.79
HFOV vs pressure-limited MV25 Death/BPD173329678/1659756/16790.900.84 to 0.97
BPD172768421/1392485/13940.860.78 to 0.96
Air leaks132854392/1615337/14391.191.05 to 1.34
Early vs delayed surfactant for respiratory distress syndrome10 Death/BPD33040447/1519543/15310.830.75 to 0.91
BPD33040117/1519170/15310.690.55 to 0.87
  • *OR.

  • BPD, bronchopulmonary dysplasia; HFOV, high frequency oscillatory ventilation; INSURE, intubate, surfactant, extubate; IVH, intraventricular haemorrhage; LISA, less-invasive surfactant administration; MV, mechanical ventilation; NCPAP,  nasal continuous positive airway pressure;  n.p., not provided; PVL, periventricular leucomalacia; RR, relative risk; sNIPPV, synchronised nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation; VTV, volume-targeted ventilation.