Table 2

Summary of randomised controlled trial data on the effects of corticosteroids on death and/or BPD (including selected complications)

Intervention: corticosteroidsOutcomeN studiesN patientsEventsControl groupRR95% CI
Early dexamethasone vs placebo28 Death/BPD152481538/1248615/12330.870.80 to 0.94
BPD152484247/1249350/12350.700.61 to 0.81
Severe ROP8150790/762115/7450.770.60 to 0.99
GI perforation9193670/96840/9681.731.20 to 2.51
Hypertension101943211/978115/9651.841.53 to 2.21
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy15013/253/254.331.40 to 13.37
Cerebral palsy792175/47240/4491.751.20 to 2.55
Early hydrocortisone vs placebo2 Survival w/o BPD1523153/256136/2671.48* 1.02 to 2.16
BPD152355/25670/2670.82* 0.58 to 1.16
Late dexamethasone vs placebo32 Death/BPD9535159/272204/2630.760.68 to 0.85
BPD9535128/272166/2630.760.66 to 0.88
Severe ROP1255893/28565/2731.381.07 to 1.79
Hypertension14117558/58829/5872.121.45 to 3.10
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy423823/1198/1192.761.33 to 5.74
Cerebral palsy1463160/32253/3091.050.75 to 1.47
Early inhaled steroids vs placebo35 Death/BPD61285227/649256/6360.860.75 to 0.99
BPD71168149/581192/5870.770.65 to 0.91
Inhaled steroids (<2 weeks) vs placebo36 Death/BPD61285227/649256/6360.860.77 to 0.99
BPD542931/21233/2170.970.62 to 1.52
Inhaled budesonide vs placebo1 38 Death/BPD1863175/437194/4190.860.75 to 1.00
BPD1863101/363138/3630.740.60 to 0.91
Death186374/43757/4191.371.01 to 1.86
Neurodevelopmental disability1629148/308165/3210.930.80 to 1.09
Intratracheal budesonide+SF vs SF39 Death/BPD126555/13189/1340.580.44 to 0.77
  • *OR.

  • BPD, bronchopulmonary dysplasia; chorio, chorioamnionitis; GI, gastrointestinal; PDA,  patent ductus arteriosus; ROP, retinopathy of prematurity; SF, surfactant.