Table 1

Infant and maternal characteristics of the study population

Infant and maternal characteristicsSGA (n=80)*TGA (n=81)*AGA (n=299)
Gestational age (weeks)39.64±1.339.53±1.439.81±1.2
p Value0.3040.134
Sex, male, n (%)43/80 (54%)26/81 (32%)140/299 (47%)
p Value0.3210.013
Birth weight (g)2850±2553215±3943567±422
p Value<0.001<0.001
Customised birthweight centile5.3±2.730.6±24.753.2±27.0
p Value<0.001<0.001
Length (cm)48.4±1.749.5±2.050.6±1.9
p Value<0.001<0.001
Body fat, n (%)8.1 (3.5)4.0 (1.1)11.4 (3.7)
p Value<0.001<0.001
Maternal age (years)30.0±4.830.2±4.029.8±4.4
p Value0.9740.813
Maternal total years of schooling13.3±0.813.3±1.013.2±1.2
p Value0.4760.531
Mother completed tertiary education, n (%)39 (49)45 (55)168 (56)
p Value0.1270.924
Socioeconomic index42.36±17.346.12±18.642.51±15.6
p Value0.5090.192
Smoking, n (%)14 (17.5)11 (13.6)23 (7.7)
p Value0.0050.018
  • Data are given as n (%) or mean±SD; a p value <0.05 denotes a statistically significant difference compared with AGA group using the Mann-Whitney U test or χ2 test as appropriate. Socioeconomic index was measured using the New Zealand socioeconomic index.28

  • *SGA and TGA groups include 20 infants who were both SGA and TGA.

  • AGA, appropriate-for-gestational age; SGA, small-for-gestational age; STGA, small- and thin-for-gestational age; TGA, thin-for-gestational age.