Table 2

BSIDIII composite scale scores across the developmental domains in each of the study groups

OutcomeSGA (n=51)TGA (n=51)STGA (n=13)AGA (n=189)
Cognitive score95 (90–100)95 (90–97.5)90 (85–95)95 (90–100)
p Value*0.150.0360.005
Hedges’ g effect size0.200.3750.79
Language score109 (97–117)100 (94–109)99 (88–109)109 (100–115)
p Value0.570.0240.129
Hedges’ g effect size0.060.350.57
Motor score103 (94–110)100 (91–97)96 (90–103)103 (97–110)
p Value0.950.0510.043
Hedges’ g effect size0.080.410.71
Crude OR (95% CI)1.37 (0.62 to 3.00)1.73 (0.8 to 3.72)4.58 (1.44 to 14.62)
p Value0.440.160.01 
Adjusted OR (95% CI)1.36 (0.60 to 3.18)1.78 (0.80 to 3.99)5.00 (1.46 to 17.13)
p Value0.450.160.01 
Age at assessment26.65 (1.6)26.6 (1.5)26.5 (1.7)26.21 (3.1)
p Value0.160.210.54 
  • Data are presented as the median (IQR).

  • *p Values calculated using Mann-Whitney U test to compare group scores with AGA reference group. Crude OR, unadjusted OR calculated for the risk of abnormal score (<85) in any of the measured domains compared with the reference AGA group. Adjusted OR, adjusted for sex, maternal years of schooling, socioeconomic index and smoking status during pregnancy.

  • AGA, appropriate-for-gestational age; BSIDIII, Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development Version III; SGA, small-for-gestational age; STGA, small- and thin-for-gestational age; TGA, thin-for-gestational age.