Table 2

Diagnosis and outcome in infants with TLD compared with infants without TLD

TLDNo TLD
Diagnosis
 HIE—stage 22 (5.7%)33 (94.3%)
 HIE—stage 330 (93.8%)*2 (6.2%)*
 P/IVH—grade III5 (27.8%)13 (72.2%)
 P/IVH—grade IV30 (68.2%)*14 (31.8%)*
Outcome
 Survived18 (23.1%)†66 (98.5%)†
  GOS 14 (22.2%)†36 (54.5%)†
  GOS 24 (22.2%)7 (10.6%)
  GOS 306 (9.1%)
  GOS 48 (44.4%)†6 (9.1%)†
  N/A2 (11.1%)11 (16.7%)
 Died‡60 (76.9%)†1 (1.5%)†
  • For diagnosis, percentages are expressed as a proportion of each category with or without TLD.

  • For neurological outcome, percentages are expressed as a proportion of surviving infants within each outcome category. Survival/Deaths are expressed as a proportion of all infants with/without TLD.

  • *p<0.05 (Fisher's exact test) (comparing frequency of treatment limitation decisions between infants with stage 3 versus stage 2 HIE, and grade IV versus grade III P/IVH).

  • †p<0.05 (Fisher's exact test) (comparing frequency of outcome between infants with/without TLD).

  • ‡Death includes in-hospital and post-discharge deaths.

  • GOS, Glasgow Outcome Scale; HIE, hypoxic–ischaemic encephalopathy; P/IVH, peri-/intraventricular haemorrhage; TLD, treatment limitation discussion.