Table 3

Theoretical mechanisms of currently explored feeding strategies to prevent neonatal LOS

Explored strategyTheoretical mechanisms
Probiotics37 41↑ the intestinal mucosal barrier to prevent the translocation of bacteria
Competitive exclusion of potential pathogens
Produce bacteriocins that kill pathogens
↑ immunoglobulin A mucosal responses
Modulation of host immune reactions to microbial products
↑ enteral nutrition and gut maturation
Early enteral trophic feeding44 46Prevent the atrophy of gastrointestinal mucosa
↑ the establishment of healthy gut microflora
↓ the use of parenteral nutrition by facilitating full enteral feeding
↑ gut mucosal immunity
Lactoferrin28 38Antimicrobial effect by iron chelation
Immunomodulatory function through cytokine production
↑ the growth of probiotic bacteria
↑ the growth and differentiation of enterocytes
↓ the formation of reactive oxygen species
  • LOS, late-onset sepsis.