Table 3

Fixed effects models evaluating the impact of the BFHI and additional breastfeeding practices on breastfeeding outcomes, Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (N=1975)*

All mothersMothers with ≤12 years of educationMothers with ≥13 years of education
Total NCoefficient† (95% CI)p ValuenCoefficient† (95% CI)p ValuenCoefficient† (95% CI)p Value
Breastfeeding initiation
 BFHI19750.070 (−0.04 to 0.18)0.28210.093 (−0.06 to 0.24)0.211530.048 (−0.07 to 0.17)0.4
 Additional breastfeeding practices19758211153
 BFHI0.032 (−0.02 to 0.08)0.20.086 (0.01 to 0.16)0.03−0.002 (−0.08 to 0.07)0.9
 Mother's breastfeeding practice score0.146 (0.13 to 0.16)<0.0010.162 (0.15 to 0.18)<0.0010.127 (0.11 to 0.15)<0.001
 Given gift pack with formula−0.113 (−0.15 to −0.08)<0.001−0.129 (−0.17 to −0.09)<0.001−0.098 (−0.15 to −0.04)0.003
Any breastfeeding for ≥4 weeks
 BFHI19380.068 (−0.02 to 0.16)0.18070.099 (−0.11 to 0.30)0.311300.013 (−0.10 to 0.12)0.8
 Additional breastfeeding practices19388071130
 BFHI0.030 (−0.11 to 0.17)0.60.094 (−0.18 to 0.37)0.5−0.037 (−0.12 to 0.05)0.3
 Mother's breastfeeding practice score0.138 (0.12 to 0.16)<0.0010.144 (0.13 to 0.16)<0.0010.121 (0.10 to 0.15)<0.001
 Given gift pack with formula−0.159 (−0.19 to −0.13)<0.001−0.129 (−0.18 to −0.08)<0.001−0.156 (−0.21 to −0.10)<0.001
Exclusive breastfeeding for ≥4 weeks
 BFHI19510.025 (−0.07 to 0.12)0.68120.054 (−0.09 to 0.20)0.41138−0.019 (−0.20 to 0.16)0.8
 Additional breastfeeding practices19518121138
 BFHI−0.010 (−0.05 to 0.03)0.60.045 (−0.09 to 0.18)0.5−0.066 (−0.20 to 0.06)0.3
 Mother's breastfeeding practice score0.124 (0.11 to 0.14)<0.0010.121 (0.10 to 0.14)<0.0010.121 (0.10 to 0.14)<0.001
 Given gift pack with formula−0.173 (−0.20 to −0.15)<0.001−0.133 (−0.21 to −0.05)0.005−0.179 (−0.22 to −0.14)<0.001
  • *Excludes 39 mothers with missing information on breastfeeding practice score or being given a gift pack with formula.

  • †All models include a birth facility fixed effect and an interaction between year and whether a birth facility ever received BFHI accreditation.

  • BFHI, Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative.