Table 3

Developmental and growth outcomes in children recruited to PROGRAMS at 2 years of age corrected for prematurity. The denominator indicates the number of children for whom parents returned questionnaires or who completed the Bayley Assessment

GM-CSFControlGM-CSF – control
OutcomeMed (IQR) or n%Med (IQR) or n%Median difference (95% CI)
Bayley scales of infant development
Mental development indexn=90n=89
 Median (IQR) scores84(72–98)87(72–96)0(−4 to 5)
 Score <551213%1011%
 Score 55–6978%67%
 Score 70–842831%2730%
 Score >844348%4652%
Psychomotor development indexn=88n=90
 Median (IQR) scores85(73–96)88(77–100)−3(−8 to 1)
 Score <55910%1112%
 Score 55–691113%44%
 Score 70–842427%1921%
 Score >844450%5662%
PARCA-r (parent report of child development)(n=75)(n=76)
 Development2622–292623–290−1 to 2
 Vocabulary4625–683816–687−3 to 17
 Sentence complexity00–300–200 to 0
 Parent report composite7350–1006541–1027−5 to 19
Parent report composite <491724%2534%0.70·4 to 1·2
GrowthMean(SD)Mean(SD)Difference in means (95% CI)
SDS*−1.6(1.4)−1.7(1.1)0.1(−0.3 to 0.5)
SDS−1.7(1.4)−1.8(1.2)0.0(−0.3 to 0.4)
Head circumferenceCm48(1.9)47(1.8)
SDS−2.1(1.5)−2.1(1.4)0.1(−0.3 to 0.5)
Midupper arm circumferenceCm15(1.5)15(1.2)
SDS−0.6(0·8)−0.8(0.7)0.1(−0.1 to 0.4)
Abdominal circumferenceCm47(5.3)46(3.2)0.85(−0.5 to 2.2)
  • * Height, weight, head circumference standard deviation scores (SDS) scores from child growth foundation standards.

  • Midupper arm circumference standard deviation scores from WHO Expert committee.

  • Parental questionnaire composite of non-verbal development, sentence complexity and vocabulary. Forty nine is the cut off for cognitive delay equivalent to bayley mental development index ≤70.

  • GM-CSF, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor.