Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies
Study IDDesignMeasurement of ETS exposureRecording of ETS exposureSettingInclusion criteriaNewcastle–Ottawa Scale
Adamek 200418Retrospective studyDomestic, occupationalBiochemical, self-reportPoland 2 maternity unitsSingleton birth, ⩾22 gestation6
Ahlborg 199119Prospective cohortDomestic, occupationalSelf-reportSweden 1 centre prenatal careFirst pregnancy, no continuous medication for illnesses8
Ahluwalia 199720Prospective cohortDomesticSelf-reportTwo US states 1989–94Singleton birth, low income6
Borlee 197821Case–controlDomesticSelf-reportSouthern Belgium 8 hospitalsUsed cases and controls from a previous study of malformations4
Brooke 198922Prospective cohortDomesticSelf-reportLondon, UK 1 hospitalWhite women, English speaking, ⩽24 weeks booking, single pregnancy5
Campbell 198823Retrospective studyDomesticSelf-reportSouthampton, UK1 in 10 random sample of Caucasian babies6
Chen 198924Retrospective studyDomesticSelf-reportShanghai 1 June to 31 Dec 1981Non-smoking mothers4
Chen 199525Case–controlAny exposureSelf-reportCalifornia, USA 1 Jan and 30 Sept 1991White women, non-smokers, singleton births, English speaking7
Ciesla 200426Case–controlDomestic, occupationalSelf-reportPoland 26 maternity wardsSGA cases, controls attended same unit as cases6
Comstock 196727Retrospective studyDomesticSelf-reportUSA 1953–63Systematic sample of birth, non-smoking women, local resident4
Dejin-Karlsson 199828Prospective cohortDomestic, occupationalSelf-reportSweden Sept 1991 – Sept 1992First pregnancy, living in Malmo, attending 1 of 4 clinics, singleton livebirth8
Dejmek 200229Retrospective studyDomesticSelf-reportCzech Republic, 2 districts Apr 1994 – Mar 1999Singleton birth, complete smoking data6
Drozdz 198830Retrospective studyDomesticBiochemical, self-reportPolandSingleton pregnancies, no complications with normal delivery5
Fantuzzi 200731Case–controlDomesticSelf-reportItaly Oct 1999 – Sept 2000Caucasian pregnant women, singleton birth, no congenital malformations8
Fortier 199432Retrospective studyDomestic, occupationalSelf-reportQuebec, Canada 1 Jan to Oct 1989Non-smoking women, singleton livebirth ⩾500 g5
Goel 200433Retrospective studyDomesticSelf-reportNorthwestern India 1 hospitalConsecutively enrolled singleton births in non-smoking women6
Haddow 198834Prospective cohortDomestic, occupationalBiochemicalMaine USA Dec 1984 – Mar 1985Non-smoking white pregnant women, part of α-fetoprotein screening programme9
Hanke 199935Retrospective studyDomestic, occupationalSelf-reportCentral Poland 26 hospitals Jun 1996 – May 1997Non-smoking pregnant women delivering on randomly selected days, singleton birth, no malformation, ⩾22 weeks’ gestation, no maternal comorbidity6
Hanke 200436Prospective cohortDomestic, occupationalBiochemical, self-reportPoland 10 units in Lodz Apr 1997 – Apr 1998Consecutively enrolled women at antenatal care units, complete data, no chronic disease8
Hegaard 200637Prospective cohortAll exposuresSelf-reportDenmark Nov 1996 – Apr 1998Non-smoking pregnant women, ⩾37 weeks’ gestation, singleton birth, no psychiatric disorders6
Hong 200338Retrospective studyDomesticBiochemical, self-reportKorea 3 areas Oct 2000 – Feb 2001Non-smoking women, singleton births, local resident, no comorbidities6
Hruba 200039Retrospective studyDomestic, occupationalSelf-reportCzech Republic Brno obstetric clinicsSingleton births on selected days3
Janghorbani 199840Retrospective studyDomesticSelf-reportIran 1 hospital Jun – Dec 1994Random sample, consecutive non-smoking women with live, full term ⩾2000 g singleton, no fetal defects or illnesses4
Jedrychowski 199641Retrospective studyDomestic, occupationalSelf-reportPolandData from children of school age5
Jedrychowski 200442Prospective cohortDomesticSelf-reportNew York and Krakow, USA Jan 2001 – Mar 200334–42 weeks’ gestation, non-smoking women, 18–35 years, no chronic diseases7
Karakostov 198543Prospective cohortAny exposureSelf-reportBulgariaPregnant women who work in an area of developed chemical industry and pregnant women in VarnaN/E
Kharrazi 200444Prospective cohortAny exposureBiochemical, self-report (subsample)Central California, USA 11 counties April 1992Mexican, non-Hispanic or white pregnant women, part of α-fetoprotein prenatal screening programme9
Kutlu 200245Retrospective studyDomesticBiochemical, self-reportTurkey 3 hospitalsAvailable placentas4
Lazzaroni 199046Retrospective studyDomestic, occupationalSelf-reportItaly 8 cities Feb – Sept 89Livebirths, ⩾37 weeks’ gestation, ⩾2000 g birth weight, no malformations6
Luciano 199847Prospective cohortDomestic, occupationalSelf-reportItalySingleton, full term, non-high-risk hospitalised pregnant women, no intercurrent illnesses3
MacMahon 196548Retrospective studyDomesticSelf-reportUSA May – June 1963Singleton, white, legitimate, livebirths4
Manious 199449Retrospective studyDomestic, occupationalSelf-reportNational Health Interview Survey in USA using multistage probability samplingAll women who gave birth within 6 years of interview and non-smokers during pregnancy6
Martin 198650Prospective cohortDomesticSelf-reportUSA Yale–New Haven Hospital May 1980 – Mar 1982First prenatal visit resulting in live singleton newborn, English speaking8
Martinez 199451Retrospective studyDomesticSelf-reportTUSCON Children’s Respiratory StudyNewborns <1 month post delivery5
Mathai 199052Retrospective cohortDomesticBiochemical, self-reportLiverpool, UK 1 centre Jan – Mar 1987White, European women resulting in singleton livebirth, locally delivered6
Mathai 199253Retrospective studyDomesticSelf-reportSouth India Teaching hospital Jan – May 1990Consecutive singleton livebirths, non-smoking women6
Matsubara 200054Prospective cohortAny exposureSelf-reportJapan 4 health centres in Nagoya April 1989 – March 1991Any women notified to be pregnant between dates, singleton pregnancy7
Mau 197455Prospective cohortDomesticSelf-reportGermany, 20 obstetric and paediatric clinicsPregnant women from the Pregnancy and Child Development study5
Nafstad 199856Case–controlAny exposureBiochemicalNorway 1 hospital 1995Single births >28 weeks’ gestation, no severe malformations, no intensive care after birth7
Nakamura 198857Retrospective studyDomestic, occupationalSelf-reportJapan Jul 1984 – Jun 1986Singleton livebirth6
Nakamura 200458Retrospective studyDomestic, occupationalSelf-reportBrazil 1 hospital 2001Randomly selected pregnant women, no ectopic or pathological pregnancy terminated before delivery4
Ogawa 199159Retrospective studyAny exposureSelf-reportJapan 146 private and public practices and hospital clinics June – Aug 1987Singleton live, full-term births without malformation6
Pan 199260Prospective cohortDomestic, occupationalSelf-reportChina July 1989 to May 1990Non-smoking pregnant women5
Peacock 199861Prospective cohortAny exposureBiochemical, self-reportUK 1 hospital Aug 1982 – Mar 1984Consecutive series of women booking for antenatal care, white, English speaking, ⩾15 years old7
Perera 200462Prospective cohortDomesticBiochemical, self-reportUSA 4 areasNon-smoking women, 18–35 years, African, American or Dominican ⩾1 year residence8
Rashid 200363Retrospective studyDomesticSelf-reportSaudi Arabia 1 hospital Jan – Dec 2001Singleton livebirths, non-smoking mother5
Rebagliato 199564Prospective cohortAny exposureBiochemical, self-reportSpain 1 hospital Sept 1989 to Sept 1991Consecutive sample, >24 weeks’ gestation, singleton livebirth, non-smoking women9
Roquer 199565Retrospective studyDomestic, occupationalSelf-reportSpain 1 hospitalMother selected during labour, singleton birth, no comorbid conditions2
Sadler 199966Prospective cohortDomestic, occupationalSelf-reportUSA 1988–92Singleton birth, non-smoking mothers, English speaking, no diabetes8
Saito 199167Retrospective studyDomesticSelf-reportTokyo JapanSingleton pregnanciesN/E
Schwartzbickenbach 198768Retrospective studyDomesticSelf-reportWest Berlin, Germany 3 hospitalsSelected sample of postnatal women2
Steyn 200669Prospective cohortDomesticSelf-reportJohannesburg and Soweto 1990Singleton livebirths6
Ward 200770Retrospective studyDomesticSelf-reportUK 2000–2Singletons from the Millennium Birth Cohort6
Windham 199911Retrospective studyDomestic, occupationalSelf-reportUSA 1986–7Singleton livebirths6
Windham 200071Prospective cohortDomestic, occupationalSelf-reportUSA 1990–1>18 years old, ⩽12 week gestation, English/ Spanish speaking, singleton livebirth8
Wu 200772Prospective cohortDomesticSelf-reportChina 1996 to 2000Full-time working, newly married, age 20–34 years, permission to conceive7
Wu 200773Prospective cohortDomestic, occupationalSelf-reportTaiwan 3 central hospitalsSingleton livebirth6
Zhang 199374Retrospective studyDomesticSelf-reportChina 29 hospitals Oct 1986 to Sept 1987⩾37 weeks’ gestation, singleton birth, non-smoking mother6
  • N/E, could not assess methodological quality of paper due to its translation.

  • ETS, environmental tobacco smoke; SGA, small for gestational age.