Table 2 Clinical, nutritional and growth outcomes of all survivors
Intervention group (n = 55)Control group (n = 59)
Median days in hospital stay91 (61)81 (31)
Mean days to regain birth weight10.3 (6.1)13.9 (6.3)***
Median days on PN17 (12)12 (12)*
Median days to full enteral feeds19 (11)15 (11)
Median number of sepsis episodes per baby2 (2)1 (2)
Median duration of ventilatory support (days)10 (26)4 (5)*
Oxygen requirement at 36 weeks' PMA (number of babies)4036
No of babies who received EBM exclusively as enteral feeds in first 4 weeks1117
No of babies with NEC66
No of babies with cholestasis1613
Post-natal steroids (number of babies)96
No of babies treated with insulin3321**
Severe IVH or parenchymal damage (number of babies)68
Mean energy intake at 4 weeks (kcal/kg)2766 (233)2621 (191)**
Mean protein intake at 4 weeks (g/kg)73 (7)64 (5)***
Mean OFC at 36 weeks' PMA (cm)31.1 (1.5)31.4 (1.3)
Mean OFC SDS at 36 weeks' PMA−1 (1.2)−0.8 (1.1)
Mean LLL at 36 weeks' PMA (cm)10.3 (0.7)10.3 (0.7)
Mean length at 36 weeks' PMA (cm)42.9 (2.3)42.4 (2.1)
Mean length SDS at 36 weeks' PMA−2.3 (1.3)−2.6 (1.2)
Mean MAC at 36 weeks' PMA (cm)8.6 (0.8)8.5 (0.8)
Mean weight at 36 weeks' PMA (g)2136 (345)2090 (293)
Mean weight SDS at 36 weeks' PMA−1.3 (0.9)−1.4 (0.8)
  • *p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001; figures in brackets represent SD ranges or interquartile ranges where appropriate.

  • EBM, expressed breast milk; IVH, intraventricular haemorrhage; LLL, lower leg length; MAC, mid-arm circumference; NEC, necrotising enterocolitis; OFC, occipitofrontal circumference; PMA, postmenstrual age; PN, parenteral nutrition; SDS, standard deviation scores.