Table 4 Comparison of rates of selected neonatal outcomes among infants delivered at term by caesarean section without labour and by spontaneous vaginal delivery in Nova Scotia, 1988–2002
Neonatal outcomesCrudeAdjusted*
OR (95% CI)p ValueOR (95% CI)p Value
Depression at birth
Delay in initiating and maintaining respiration1.04 (0.75 to 1.43)0.891.21 (0.80 to 1.84)0.37
Low 5-minute Apgar score (⩽3)1.76 (1.01 to 3.06)0.063.33 (1.64 to 6.78)<0.001
HIE and associated sequelae1.40 (0.78 to 2.51)0.331.68 (0.84 to 3.35)0.14
Neonatal birth trauma
Minor trauma0.12 (0.07 to 0.20)<0.0010.09 (0.05 to 0.17)<0.001
Major trauma0.21 (0.10 to 0.44)<0.0010.20 (0.08 to 0.52)<0.001
Respiratory conditions
RDS7.96 (5.75 to 11.03)<0.0015.39 (3.24 to 8.98)<0.001
Transient tachypnoea2.42 (2.04 to 2.86)<0.0012.41 (1.87 to 3.10)<0.001
Aspiration pneumonitis0.90 (0.60 to 1.34)0.671.11 (0.66 to 1.84)0.50
NICU stay >24 hours2.04 (1.85 to 2.25)<0.0011.33 (1.16 to 1.54)<0.001
Breastfeeding at discharge0.92 (0.91 to 0.94)<0.0010.64 (0.60 to 0.67)<0.001
  • *Adjusted for year of delivery, maternal age, parity, smoking, maternal weight at delivery, hypertensive disease, diabetes, previous caesarean delivery, the use of regional anaesthesia, the induction of labour, gestational age, and large and small for gestational age, where significant.

  • HIE, hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy; NICU, neonatal intensive care unit; RDS, respiratory distress syndrome.