Table 1

 Neonatal and fetal states

Neonatal behavioural stateDescriptorsNeonatal behavioursFetal state correlateFetal behavioursFetal heart rate pattern
FB, Fetal breathing; FBM, fetal body movement; FEM, fetal eye movement.
1Quiet, asleepRegular respirations, non-REM sleep1FFB: regular, if presentA: Variability (10 beats/min), isolated accelerations associated with movement
FBM: rare gross movements, non-discriminatory
FEM: absent
2Active, asleepIrregular respirations, REM sleep, activity non-discriminatory2FFB: irregular, if presentB: Variability (10–20 beats/min), frequent accelerations of 10–20 beats/min
FBM: small body movements, gross, non-discriminatory, episodic
FEM: absent
3Quiet, awakeRegular respirations, no gross activity3FFB: regular, if presentC: No accelerations, rate oscillates more regularly than in B
FBM: no gross movements
FEM: present
4Active, awakeIrregular respirations, physically active4FFB: irregular, if presentD: “Unstable” rate, variability up to 25 beats/min, accelerations of 25–30 beats/min, occasional sustained tachycardia
FBM: gross and small movements, continual
FEM: present
5CryingIrregular respirations, physically activeDescribed here