Table 2

 Studies of neonatal sepsis in developing countries

CountryType of studyDuration of study (months)Total No of positive blood culturesEarly onsetLate onsetMost common isolates
EOS %Mortality %LOS %Mortality %
Percentage of cases by age of onset and most common isolates. If not otherwise stated, early onset (EOS) is defined as first 48 hours, and late onset (LOS) as more than 48 hours.
*The data in the table refer to the blood culture results of the newborn (0–1 months old) of the four studies. In The Gambia the most common pathogen was Staph aureus, in Papua New Guinea S pyogenes, in the Philippines Salmonella, and in Ethiopia S pyogenes and E coli.
GBS, Group B streptococcus. All the data refer to blood cultures only. EOS %, EOS/all positive blood cultures × 100; LOS %, LOS/all positive blood cultures × 100. Mortality %, EOS/all positive blood cultures × 100 and LOS/all positive blood cultures × 100; n/a, not available.
Malaysia13Prospective surveillance9 (1991)13626 (35/136)1274(20/69)18Acinetobacter, Klebsiella
Kenya12Prospective and retrospective survey6 (1997–8)12130 (21/69) (72 h)430 (>72 h)10Klebsiella, Citrobacter
Nigeria39Prospective surveillance11 (1994–5)62478535Staph aureus, Pseudomonas
India25Prospective Surveillance6 (1997)96509504Staph aureus, Klebsiella
Panama9Surveillance, retrospective216 (1975–92)57747 (<5 days)4453 (>5 days)22Klebsiella, Staph aureus
India17Surveillance15 (1996–7)15786 (6 days)4914 (>6 days)68Klebsiella, Pseudomonas
Saudi Arabia40Case control study60 (1983–8)6139216124Staphylococci, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Serratia
India36Prospective surveillance24 (1995–6)1312347710Klebsiella, Enterobacter fecalis
The Gambia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Ethiopia*41Multicentre study (4 prospective surveillance studies)Each study conducted over 24 months (1990–1993)167 (84 in the neonatal period)30% (7 days)n/a70%n/aStaph aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, E coli