Table 1

 Studies examining long-term cognitive outcomes after neonatal encephalopathy or perinatal asphyxia (discussed in the text)

StudyRef noTypeInclusion criteriaNo of casesAge at f/u (years)Neurodevelopmental tests carried out
ABC, Assessment Battery for Children; Apgar, adaptability, partnership, growth, affection, resolve; BAS-II, British Ability Scales school age battery; BD, base deficit; BSID-II MDI, Mental Development Index of Bayley’s Scale of Infant Development; C, cohort; CC, case–control; COWAT, Controlled Oral Word Association Test; EAT, Edinburgh Articulation Test; ESAP, Edmonton Spelling Abilities Test; f/u, follow up; KDAT, Keymath Diagnostic Arithmetic Test; MSRI, McCracken Standard Reading Inventory; NE, neonatal encephalopathy; NESPY, Neuropsychological Assessment Scale; PB CC, population-based case–control; PPVT, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test; RAVLT, Rey’s Auditory Verbal Learning Test; RDLS, Reynell Developmental Language Scales; UA, umbilical artery; VMI, Developmental Test of Visual–Motor Integration; WISC, Wechsler Intelligence Scale Test for Children; WPPSI-R, Wechsler Pre-School and Primary Scale of Intelligence—Revised.
Studies that include functional motor deficits
    Dixon et al, 200211PB CCModerate or severe NE1951–2Griffiths Mental Developmental Scale
    Marlow et al, 200512CModerate or severe NE657BAS-II, NEPSY, Behaviour Questionnaire
    Barnett et al, 200214CApgar⩽5 at 5 min and NE535–6Touwen, Movement ABC, WPPSI-R
    Miller et al, 200418CNE or UA pH<7.1, UA BD>10 or 5 min Apgar⩽5682.5BSID-II MDI
    Naeye and Peters, 198738CFetal, intrapartum or neonatal hypoxia19 1177WISC
    D’Souza et al, 198143CApgar⩽1 at 1 min262.5Hearing, RDLS, EAT
    Robertson et al, 198915CCMild, moderate or severe NE1458WISC, PPVT, VMI, MSRI, ESAT, KDAT
Studies that exclude functional motor deficits
    Maneru et al, 200113CCApgar⩽6, UA pH⩽7.15, meconium, bradycardia, respiratory distress, abnormal neuro exam28TeenRAVLT, WISC, COWAT
    Moster et al, 200117PB CCNE or low Apgars7278–13Questionnaire
    Stevens et al, 199939CInitial arterial pH 7.1–7.3484–7WPPSI-R
    Handley-Derry et al, 199740CCUA BD>12 mmol/l, no or minor NE484–8Motor, cognitive development; memory, behaviour