Table 2

Diagnostic markers of infection for preterm and newborn infants

Haematological tests
    Total white blood cell count
    Total neutrophil count
    Immature neutrophil count
    Immature/total neutrophil ratio
    Neutrophil morphology: vacuolisation, toxic granulations, Döhle bodies, intracellular bacteria
    Platelet count
    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)
    d-dimer
    Fibrinogen
    Thrombin-antithrombin III complex (TAT)
    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1)
    Plasminogen tissue activator (tPA)
Acute phase proteins and other proteins
    α1 Antitrypsin
    C Reactive protein (CRP)
    Fibronectin
    Haptoglobin
    Lactoferrin
    Neopterin
    Orosomucoid
    Procalcitonin (PCT)
Components of the complement system
    C3a-desArg
    C3bBbP
    sC5b-9
Chemokines, cytokines and adhesion molecules
    Interleukin (IL)1β, IL1ra, IL2, sIL2R, IL4, IL5, IL6, IL8, IL10
    Tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα), 11sTNFR-p55, 12sTNFR-p75
    Interferon γ (IFNγ)
    E-selectin
    L-selectin
    Soluble intracellular adhesion moleucule-1 (sICAM-1)
    Vascular cell
    adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1)
Cell surface markers
Neutrophil Lymphocyte Monocyte
CD11bCD3HLA-DR
CD11cCD19
CD13CD25
CD15CD26
CD33CD45RO
CD64CD69
CD66bCD71
Others
    Lactate
    Micro-erythrocyte sedimentation
    Superoxide anion (respiratory burst)