Table 1

Pregnancy, perinatal and neonatal data for 130 intact low birthweight infants assessed at 11 years of age (children without cerebral palsy, blindness, deafness, mutiple malformations, or chromosomal abberations)

All (n= 130)<1500 g (n=50)1500–1999 g (n=80)
Unless otherwise indicated, values are numbers or numbers with percentages in parentheses.
*Pathological non-stress test or low hormones.
†High C reactive protein, temperature >38,5° C, smelly fluids or combinations of these and premature rupture of the membranes.
‡Abnormal cardiotocogram leading to caesarean section or forceps delivery.
§Birth weight divided by the 50th centile birth weight for that gestational age (similar for head circumference and birth length).
¶Two of these needed oxygen supplementation after 40 weeks postmenstrual age.
**Proven by positive blood or spinal fluid culture or suspected because of symptoms and blood infection parameters.
††Number of days on ventilator + number of days on continuous positive airways pressure + number of days on supplemtary oxygen.
‡‡None had periventricular leucomalacia.
§§Both had intraventricular haemorrhage.
BPD, Bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
Prenatal factors
    Twin or triplet pregnancy26 (20)719
    Pre-eclampsia41 (32)2120
    Placental abruption10 (8)28
    Maternal smoking in pregnancy45 (41)1827
    Intrauterine stress*19 (16)118
    Chorioamnionitis†15 (12)78
    Breech presentation26 (23)1313
    Intrapartum stress leading to delivery‡13 (11)58
Prenatal continous variables, mean (SD)
    Birthweight ratio§0.83 (0.19)0.83 (0.19)0.83 ( 0.19)
    Birth head-circumference ratio§0.98 (0.06)0.98 (0.06)0.98 (0.06)
    Birth length ratio§0.95 (0.07)0.96 (0.08)0.95 (0.07)
Birth and neonatal factors
    Vaginal delivery39 (33)1227
    Apgar score at 5 minutes <713 (10)103
    Seizures/abnormal neurological signs1 (1)10
    Pulmonal air leaks3 (2)30
    Bronchpulmonary dysplasia¶13 (11)121
    BPD steroid treated2 (2)20
    Neonatal systemic bacterial infection**8 (6)62
    <30% breastmilk in neonatal ward35 (27)1223
Birth/neonatal continous variables, mean (SD)
    Maximum bilirubin concentration192 (60)176 (52)203 (62)
    Days to regain birth weight10 (5)11 (5)10 (5)
    Apgar at 5 minutes8 (1)8 (1)9 (1)
    Days of assisted ventilation or oxygen††6 (13)13 (18)1 (4)
Cerebral ultrasound performed in all with birth weight <1500 g ( n= 50):‡‡
    Grades I–II haemorrhage12
    Grades III–IV haemorrhage1
    Permanent dilation of ventricles§§2