Table 1

Clinical characteristics of the study populations

Group C (n = 44)Group D (n = 41)Group I (n = 31)
Birth weight (g)3458 (684)3250 (538)3399 (572)
Length (cm)49.6 (2.9)48.7 (2.0)48.7 (2.5)
BMI (kg/m2)13.9 (1.7)13.6 (1.6)14.3 (1.6)
Placental weight (g)570 (94)556 (99)563 (126)
Male:female (n)23 : 2128 : 1315 : 16
Mode of delivery (n) (normal: caesarean section: forcep or ventouse)22 : 13 : 918 : 14 : 916 : 12 : 3
Maternal smoker (n)130
Apgar scores
 at 1 min9 (8– 9)9 (8.75–9)9 (8–10)
 at 5 min10 (9–10)10 (10–10)10 (9–10)
Arterial cord blood
 pH7.27 (7.22–7.30)7.27 (7.18–7.31)7.25 (7.19–7.27)
 Base excess−6.6 (−3.8 to −7.9)−6.7 (–5.4 to –8.5)−6.3 (−4.6 to −8.2)
Maternal HbA1c 1-150 4.84 (0.44)6.05 (1.12)
  • Results are expressed as mean (SD) or median (interquartile range).

  • 1-150 p < 0.05.